|S1547||Febuxostat||<1 mg/mL||63 mg/mL||<1 mg/mL|
|S1623||Acetylcysteine||33 mg/mL||33 mg/mL||33 mg/mL|
|S1630||Allopurinol||4 mg/mL||27 mg/mL||3 mg/mL|
|S2605||Idebenone||<1 mg/mL||68 mg/mL||68 mg/mL|
|S2062||Tiopronin||32 mg/mL||32 mg/mL||32 mg/mL|
|S3885||Pyrogallol||-1 mg/mL||25 mg/mL||-1 mg/mL|
|S3838||Carnosic acid||-1 mg/mL||66 mg/mL||-1 mg/mL|
|S3840||Baohuoside I||-1 mg/mL||100 mg/mL||-1 mg/mL|
|S3973||L-SelenoMethionine||39 mg/mL||<1 mg/mL||-1 mg/mL|
|S3616||Asiaticoside||<1 mg/mL||100 mg/mL||<1 mg/mL|
|S3631||(S)-Methylisothiourea sulfate||27 mg/mL||<1 mg/mL||<1 mg/mL|
|S3632||Trichloroisocyanuric acid||20 mg/mL||46 mg/mL||2 mg/mL|
|S3607||Sarsasapogenin||<1 mg/mL||<1 mg/mL||5 mg/mL|
|S4580||Hydroquinone||22 mg/mL||22 mg/mL||22 mg/mL|
|S4603||Gallic acid||7 mg/mL||34 mg/mL||34 mg/mL|
|S1631||Allopurinol Sodium||32 mg/mL||32 mg/mL||2 mg/mL|
|S2399||Dihydromyricetin||<1 mg/mL||64 mg/mL||64 mg/mL|
|S2332||Neohesperidin||<1 mg/mL||122 mg/mL||<1 mg/mL|
|S4511||6-Benzylaminopurine||<1 mg/mL||45 mg/mL||<1 mg/mL|
|S7551||Piperlongumine||<1 mg/mL||16 mg/mL||6 mg/mL|
|S7867||Oleuropein||100 mg/mL||100 mg/mL||100 mg/mL|
|S2363||Tangeretin||<1 mg/mL||8 mg/mL||<1 mg/mL|
|S4722||(+)-Catechin||58 mg/mL||58 mg/mL||58 mg/mL|
|S4723||(-)Epicatechin||<1 mg/mL||58 mg/mL||<1 mg/mL|
Febuxostat is a selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor with Ki of 0.6 nM.
NOX activity was measured as lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of superoxide. Incubation with febuxostat increased superoxide generation in nonactivated macrophages, but did not significantly influence superoxide formation in LPS-activated macrophages. Simultaneous treatment with febuxostat abolished the effect of nitrite during activation with LPS. Data are means±SEM (n=10-12). *, p<0.05. LPS, lipopolysaccharide (10 ng/ml); NO2, sodium nitrite (10 μM); febuxostat, xanthine oxidase inhibitor (30 nM).
Acetylcysteine(N-acetyl-l-cysteine) is a ROS(reactive oxygen species) inhibitor that antagonizes the activity of proteasome inhibitors. It is also a tumor necrosis factor production inhibitor, used mainly as a mucolytic, protects against acetaminophen overdose-induced hepatotoxicity by maintaining or restoring hepatic concentrations of glutathione.
Allopurinol is a purine analog inhibitor of the enzyme xanthine oxidase, used to treat gout or kidney stones, and to decrease levels of uric acid.
Idebenone is a synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and a brain stimulant.
Tiopronin is an antioxidant agent, used for the treatment of cystinuria by controlling the rate of cystine precipitation and excretion.
Pyrogallol, an organic compound belonging to the phenol family, used as a photographic film developer and in the preparation of other chemicals. It is known to be a superoxide anion generator and ROS inducer.
Carnosic acid is a phenolic diterpene, endowed with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. It is increasingly used within food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries.
Baohuoside I (also known as Icariside II) is a flavonoid isolated from Epimedium koreanum Nakai with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. It may exert cytotoxic effect via the ROS/MAPK pathway.
L-SelenoMethionine (SeMet), a naturally occurring amino acid, is a major food-form of selenium. It has been used as a supplement, and exhibits some important functions like cancer prevention and antioxidative defense.
Asiaticoside, the major active principle of Centella asiatica, prevents ultraviolet A-dependent photoaging by suppressing ultraviolet A-induced reactive oxygen species production. It also decreases DNA binding by MITF.
(S)-Methylisothiourea sulfate is a potent inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS).
Trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) is a safe and efficient reagent, useful for chlorination and oxidation reactions.
Sarsasapogenin (SAR) is a steroidal sapogenin. It can provoke the generation of reactive oxygen species and activate unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathways. SAR potently inhibits NF-κB and MAPK activation, as well as IRAK1, TAK1, and IκBα phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated macrophages.
Hydroquinone is a Melanin Synthesis Inhibitor. The physiologic effect of hydroquinone is by means of Depigmenting Activity. It also posesses antioxidant properties that can cause toxicity in several organs, notably the kidney.
Gallic acid, known as powerful antioxidants, is an organic acid found in a variety of foods and herbs.
Allopurinol Sodium is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor with an IC50 of 7.82±0.12 μM.
Dihydromyricetin (Ampelopsin, Ampeloptin) is a natural antioxidant flavonoid from Ampelopsis grossedentata.
A. Cal27 cells transfected with GFP-LC3 plasmid were treated with different concentration of DHM for 24 h. The formation of GFP-LC3 puncta were examined using immunofluorescence and quantified. Scale bar 50 μm.
Neohesperidin, a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits, is an antioxidant agent.
6-Benzylaminopurine is a first-generation synthetic cytokinin which could regulate the activities of the antioxidant defense system of plants.Its treatment elicits plant growth and development.
Piperlongumine, a natural alkaloid from Piper longum L., increases the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and selectively kills cancer cells. It is a direct TrxR1 inhibitor with suppressive activity against gastric cancer and a novel inhibitor of CRM1; also an inhibitor of PI3K/Akt/mTOR in human breast cancer cells.
a. Cell growth of ARID1A-wildtype RMG1 cells transfected with ARID1A and non-target siRNA for 24 h and treated with piperlongumine for 72 h. b. Apoptosis of RMG1 cells after transfection and treatment as described in a as measured using annexin-V and PI staining. c. Cell growth of RMG1 cells transfected and treated with 5 μM of piperlongumine as described in a, but in the presence or absence of the antioxidant NAC. Cell growth was measured using the WST-1 assay and quantified relative to DMSO treated non-target control. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001.
Oleuropein is an antioxidant polyphenol isolated from olive leaf. Phase 2.
Tangeretin, a natural polymethoxylated flavone concentrated in the peel of citrus fruits, is known to have antiproliferative, antiinvasive, antimetastatic and antioxidant activities.
Cianidanol is an antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.
(−)Epicatechin is a flavonoid present in cocoa, green tea and red wine. It is a strong antioxidant, has insulin mimic action and improves heart health.