p38 MAPK

シグナル伝達経路

研究分野

阻害剤の選択性比較

カタログ番号 製品カタログ 溶解度(25°C)
DMSO アルコール
S1076 SB203580 <1 mg/mL 43 mg/mL '<1 mg/mL
S1574 Doramapimod (BIRB 796) <1 mg/mL 100 mg/mL 100 mg/mL
S1077 SB202190 (FHPI) <1 mg/mL 66 mg/mL 12 mg/mL
S1494 Ralimetinib (LY2228820) dimesylate 100 mg/mL 4 mg/mL '3 mg/mL
S5967 Berberine chloride hydrate 39 mg/mL 78 mg/mL '<1 mg/mL
S6920 SEA0400 <1 mg/mL 74 mg/mL '74 mg/mL
S6005 VX-702 <1 mg/mL 81 mg/mL '<1 mg/mL
S2726 PH-797804 <1 mg/mL 96 mg/mL 7 mg/mL
S1458 Neflamapimod (VX-745) <1 mg/mL 15 mg/mL '<1 mg/mL
S2928 TAK-715 <1 mg/mL 80 mg/mL 16 mg/mL
S3940 3'-Hydroxypterostilbene <1 mg/mL 54 mg/mL 54 mg/mL
S8125 Pamapimod <1 mg/mL 81 mg/mL 28 mg/mL
S6502 SD 0006 <1 mg/mL 80 mg/mL 2 mg/mL
S7741 SB239063 <1 mg/mL 60 mg/mL 7 mg/mL
S7214 Skepinone-L <1 mg/mL 85 mg/mL '85 mg/mL
S0752 AUDA <1 mg/mL 78 mg/mL 6 mg/mL
S0542 R1487 <1 mg/mL <1 mg/mL ''''<1 mg/mL
S4884 Trans-Zeatin <1 mg/mL 43 mg/mL 2 mg/mL
S9315 Praeruptorin A -1 mg/mL 77 mg/mL -1 mg/mL
S9075 Mulberroside A -1 mg/mL 100 mg/mL -1 mg/mL
S8124 BMS-582949 <1 mg/mL 81 mg/mL '<1 mg/mL
S7799 Pexmetinib (ARRY-614) <1 mg/mL 100 mg/mL 100 mg/mL
S6807 TA-02 <1 mg/mL 67 mg/mL 3 mg/mL
S8706 UM-164 <1 mg/mL 100 mg/mL <1 mg/mL
S5183 PD 169316 <1 mg/mL 14 mg/mL '<1 mg/mL
S1950 Metformin HCl 33 mg/mL <1 mg/mL '<1 mg/mL
S5958 Metformin 26 mg/mL 26 mg/mL '''26 mg/mL
S2266 Asiatic Acid <1 mg/mL 97 mg/mL <1 mg/mL
S2271 Berberine chloride (NSC 646666) <1 mg/mL 40 mg/mL <1 mg/mL
S7686 ML141 <1 mg/mL 81 mg/mL <1 mg/mL
S6347 5'-N-Ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) <1 mg/mL 62 mg/mL '''<1 mg/mL
S9514 Rotundic acid -1 mg/mL 98 mg/mL -1 mg/mL

亜型選択性的な製品

p38 MAPK製品

製品コード 製品説明 文献中Selleckの製品使用例 お客様のフィードバック
S1076

SB203580

SB203580 (RWJ 64809, PB 203580) is a p38 MAPK inhibitor with IC50 of 0.3-0.5 μM in THP-1 cells, 10-fold less sensitive to SAPK3(106T) and SAPK4(106T) and blocks PKB phosphorylation with IC50 of 3-5 μM. SB203580 induces mitophagy and autophagy.

S1574

Doramapimod (BIRB 796)

Doramapimod (BIRB 796) is a pan-p38 MAPK inhibitor with IC50 of 38 nM, 65 nM, 200 nM and 520 nM for p38α/β/γ/δ in cell-free assays, and binds p38α with Kd of 0.1 nM in THP-1 cells, 330-fold greater selectivity versus JNK2, weak inhibition for c-RAF, Fyn and Lck, insignificant inhibition of ERK-1, SYK, IKK2.

S1077

SB202190 (FHPI)

SB202190 (FHPI) is a potent p38 MAPK inhibitor targeting p38α/β with IC50 of 50 nM/100 nM in cell-free assays, sometimes used instead of SB 203580 to investigate potential roles for SAPK2a/p38 in vivo. SB202190 inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis via induction of autophagy and heme oxygenase-1. SB202190 significantly suppresses Erastin‐dependent ferroptosis.

S1494

Ralimetinib (LY2228820) dimesylate

Ralimetinib (LY2228820) dimesylate is a novel and potent inhibitor of p38 MAPK with IC50 of 7 nM in a cell-free assay, does not alter p38 MAPK activation. Phase 1/2.

S5967

Berberine chloride hydrate

Berberine (Natural Yellow 18) chloride hydrate is a quaternary ammonium salt from the group of isoquinoline alkaloids. Berberine activates caspase 3 and caspase 8, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and the release of cytochrome c. Berberine chloride decreases the expression of c-IAP1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Berberine chloride induces apoptosis with sustained phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, as well as generation of the ROS. Berberine chloride is a dual topoisomerase I and II inhibitor. Berberine chloride is also a potential autophagy modulator.

S6920

SEA0400

SEA0400 is a selective and potent inhibitor of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) that inhibits Na+-dependent Ca2+ uptake in cultured neurons, astrocytes, and microglia with IC50 of 33 nM, 5.0 nM and 8.3 nM, respectively. SEA0400 prevents sodium nitroprusside (SNP) from increasing ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in an extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent manner.

S6005

VX-702

VX-702 is a highly selective inhibitor of p38α MAPK, 14-fold higher potency against the p38α versus p38β. Phase 2.

S2726

PH-797804

PH-797804 is a novel pyridinone inhibitor of p38α with IC50 of 26 nM in a cell-free assay; 4-fold more selective versus p38β and does not inhibit JNK2. Phase 2.

S1458

Neflamapimod (VX-745)

Neflamapimod (VX-745) is a potent and selective inhibitor of p38α with IC50 of 10 nM, 22-fold greater selectivity versus p38β and no inhibition to p38γ.

S2928

TAK-715

TAK-715 is a p38 MAPK inhibitor for p38α with IC50 of 7.1 nM, 28-fold more selective for p38α over p38β, no inhibition to p38γ/δ, JNK1, ERK1, IKKβ, MEKK1 or TAK1. Phase 2.

S3940

3'-Hydroxypterostilbene

3'-Hydroxypterostilbene (3'-HPT) is one of the active constituents of Sphaerophysa salsula and Pterocarpus marsupium which may be useful in treating different types of haematological malignancies.

S8125

Pamapimod

Pamapimod (R-1503, Ro4402257) is a novel, selective inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. It inhibits p38α and p38β enzymatic activity with IC50 values of 0.014±0.002 and 0.48± 0.04 microM, respectively with no activity against p38delta or p38gamma isoforms.

S6502

SD 0006

SD0006 is an inhibitor of p38 kinase-alpha (p38alpha) with IC50 values of 0.016 μM and 0.677 μM for p38α and p38β. It is selective for p38α kinase over 50 other kinases screened (including p38γ and p38δ with modest selectivity over p38β).

S7741

SB239063

SB239063 is a potent and selective p38 MAPKα/β inhibitor with IC50 of 44 nM, showing no activity against the γ- and δ-kinase isoforms.

S7214

Skepinone-L

Skepinone-L (CBS3830) is a selective p38α-MAPK inhibitor with IC50 of 5 nM.

S0752

AUDA

AUDA (compound 43) is a potent inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) with IC50 of 18 nM and 69 nM for the mouse sEH and human sEH, respectively. AUDA has anti-inflammatory activity that reduces the protein expression of MMP-9, IL-1β, TNF-α and TGF-β. AUDA downregulates Smad3 and p38 signaling pathways.

S0542

R1487

R1487 is an orally bioavailable and highly selective inhibitor of p38α with an ic50 value of 10 nM.

S4884

Trans-Zeatin

Trans-Zeatina ((E)-Zeatin) is the member of the plant growth hormone family known as cytokinins, which regulate cell division, development, and nutrient processing. Trans-Zeatin inhibits UVB-induced MMP-1 expression, c-Jun activation and phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38 MAP kinases (MAPKs) dose-dependently.

S9315

Praeruptorin A

Praeruptorin A, a naturally existing pyranocumarin, is isolated from the dried root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn. Praeruptorin A inhibits p38/Akt-c-Fos-NFATc1 signaling and PLCγ-independent Ca2+ oscillation. Praeruptorin A can significantly upregulates multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 expression via the constitutive androstane receptor-mediated pathway in vitro, and this should be taken as an herb-drug interaction.

S9075

Mulberroside A

Mulberroside A, isolated from the ethanol extract of Morus alba roots, is widely employed as an active ingredient in cosmetic products due to its anti-tyrosinase and anti-oxidant activities. Mulberroside A decreases the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 and inhibits the activation of NALP3, caspase-1 and NF-κB and the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38.

S8124

BMS-582949

BMS-582949 (PS540446) is a potent and selective p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) inhibitor with IC50 of 13nM,inhibiting both p38 kinase activity and activation of p38.

S7799

Pexmetinib (ARRY-614)

Pexmetinib (ARRY-614) is a potent, orally bioavailable, dual p38 MAPK/Tie-2 inhibitor with IC50 of 4 nM/18 nM in a HEK-293 cell line. Phase 1.

S6807

TA-02

TA-02 is a p38 MAPK inhibitor with IC50 of 20 nM. TA-02 especially inhibits TGFBR-2.

S8706

UM-164

UM-164 is a highly potent, dual c-Src/p38inhibitor of c-Src with a binding constant Kd of 2.7 nM for c-Src and inhibits both p38α and p38β.

S5183

PD 169316

PD 169316 is a potent, selective and cell-permeable p38 MAP kinase inhibitor with IC50 of 89 nM. PD169316 abrogates signaling initiated by both TGFbeta and Activin A. PD169316 shows antiviral activity against Enterovirus71.

S1950

Metformin HCl

Metformin HCl (1,1-Dimethylbiguanide HCl) decreases hyperglycemia in hepatocytes primarily by suppressing glucose production by the liver (hepatic gluconeogenesis). Metformin promotes mitophagy in mononuclear cells. Metformin induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells through activating JNK/p38 MAPK pathway and GADD153.

S5958

Metformin

Metformin (1,1-Dimethylbiguanide), a widely used drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes, activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in hepatocytes. Metformin promotes mitophagy in mononuclear cells. Metformin induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells through activating JNK/p38 MAPK pathway and GADD153.

S2266

Asiatic Acid

Asiatic acid (Dammarolic acid, Asiantic acid) is the aglycone of asiaticoside isolated from the plant Centella asiatica, commonly used in wound healing.

S2271

Berberine chloride (NSC 646666)

Berberine chloride (NSC 646666, Natural Yellow 18) is a quaternary ammonium salt from the group of isoquinoline alkaloids. Berberine activates caspase 3 and caspase 8, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and the release of cytochrome c. Berberine chloride decreases the expression of c-IAP1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Berberine chloride induces apoptosis with sustained phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, as well as generation of the ROS. Berberine chloride is a dual topoisomerase I and II inhibitor. Berberine chloride is also a potential autophagy modulator.

S7686

ML141

ML141 (CID-2950007) is demonstrated to be a potent, selective and reversible non-competitive inhibitor of Cdc42 GTPase suitable for in vitro assays, with IC50 of 200 nM and selectivity against other members of the Rho family of GTPases (Rac1, Rab2, Rab7). ML141 is associated with an increase in p38 activation and may induce p38-dependent apoptosis/senescence. ML141 also protects neuroblastoma cells from metformin-induced apoptosis.

S6347

5'-N-Ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA)

5'-N-Ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, 5'-(N-Ethylcarboxamido)adenosine, Adenosine-5'N-ethylcarboxamide, 5'-Ethylcarboxamidoadenosine) is a stable, nonselective adenosine receptor agonist. 5'-N-Ethylcarboxamidoadenosine acts via multiple mechanisms including: reducing diabetes-induced oxidative stress, inhibiting gene expression of IL-18, TNF-α and ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD54)), and blocking activation of the JNK-MAPK pathway.

S9514

Rotundic acid

Rotundic acid (Rutundic acid), a natural compound, exhibit cytotoxic activities toward human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), malignant melanoma (A375), SCLC (NCI-H446), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon cancer (HT-29) cell lines.RA induces cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, and apoptosis by modulating the AKT/mTOR and MAPK pathways.

製品コード 製品説明 文献中Selleckの製品使用例 お客様のフィードバック
S1076

SB203580

SB203580 (RWJ 64809, PB 203580) is a p38 MAPK inhibitor with IC50 of 0.3-0.5 μM in THP-1 cells, 10-fold less sensitive to SAPK3(106T) and SAPK4(106T) and blocks PKB phosphorylation with IC50 of 3-5 μM. SB203580 induces mitophagy and autophagy.

S1574

Doramapimod (BIRB 796)

Doramapimod (BIRB 796) is a pan-p38 MAPK inhibitor with IC50 of 38 nM, 65 nM, 200 nM and 520 nM for p38α/β/γ/δ in cell-free assays, and binds p38α with Kd of 0.1 nM in THP-1 cells, 330-fold greater selectivity versus JNK2, weak inhibition for c-RAF, Fyn and Lck, insignificant inhibition of ERK-1, SYK, IKK2.

S1077

SB202190 (FHPI)

SB202190 (FHPI) is a potent p38 MAPK inhibitor targeting p38α/β with IC50 of 50 nM/100 nM in cell-free assays, sometimes used instead of SB 203580 to investigate potential roles for SAPK2a/p38 in vivo. SB202190 inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis via induction of autophagy and heme oxygenase-1. SB202190 significantly suppresses Erastin‐dependent ferroptosis.

S1494

Ralimetinib (LY2228820) dimesylate

Ralimetinib (LY2228820) dimesylate is a novel and potent inhibitor of p38 MAPK with IC50 of 7 nM in a cell-free assay, does not alter p38 MAPK activation. Phase 1/2.

S5967

Berberine chloride hydrate

Berberine (Natural Yellow 18) chloride hydrate is a quaternary ammonium salt from the group of isoquinoline alkaloids. Berberine activates caspase 3 and caspase 8, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and the release of cytochrome c. Berberine chloride decreases the expression of c-IAP1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Berberine chloride induces apoptosis with sustained phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, as well as generation of the ROS. Berberine chloride is a dual topoisomerase I and II inhibitor. Berberine chloride is also a potential autophagy modulator.

S6920

SEA0400

SEA0400 is a selective and potent inhibitor of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) that inhibits Na+-dependent Ca2+ uptake in cultured neurons, astrocytes, and microglia with IC50 of 33 nM, 5.0 nM and 8.3 nM, respectively. SEA0400 prevents sodium nitroprusside (SNP) from increasing ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in an extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent manner.

S6005

VX-702

VX-702 is a highly selective inhibitor of p38α MAPK, 14-fold higher potency against the p38α versus p38β. Phase 2.

S2726

PH-797804

PH-797804 is a novel pyridinone inhibitor of p38α with IC50 of 26 nM in a cell-free assay; 4-fold more selective versus p38β and does not inhibit JNK2. Phase 2.

S1458

Neflamapimod (VX-745)

Neflamapimod (VX-745) is a potent and selective inhibitor of p38α with IC50 of 10 nM, 22-fold greater selectivity versus p38β and no inhibition to p38γ.

S2928

TAK-715

TAK-715 is a p38 MAPK inhibitor for p38α with IC50 of 7.1 nM, 28-fold more selective for p38α over p38β, no inhibition to p38γ/δ, JNK1, ERK1, IKKβ, MEKK1 or TAK1. Phase 2.

S3940

3'-Hydroxypterostilbene

3'-Hydroxypterostilbene (3'-HPT) is one of the active constituents of Sphaerophysa salsula and Pterocarpus marsupium which may be useful in treating different types of haematological malignancies.

S8125

Pamapimod

Pamapimod (R-1503, Ro4402257) is a novel, selective inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. It inhibits p38α and p38β enzymatic activity with IC50 values of 0.014±0.002 and 0.48± 0.04 microM, respectively with no activity against p38delta or p38gamma isoforms.

S6502

SD 0006

SD0006 is an inhibitor of p38 kinase-alpha (p38alpha) with IC50 values of 0.016 μM and 0.677 μM for p38α and p38β. It is selective for p38α kinase over 50 other kinases screened (including p38γ and p38δ with modest selectivity over p38β).

S7741

SB239063

SB239063 is a potent and selective p38 MAPKα/β inhibitor with IC50 of 44 nM, showing no activity against the γ- and δ-kinase isoforms.

S7214

Skepinone-L

Skepinone-L (CBS3830) is a selective p38α-MAPK inhibitor with IC50 of 5 nM.

S0752

AUDA

AUDA (compound 43) is a potent inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) with IC50 of 18 nM and 69 nM for the mouse sEH and human sEH, respectively. AUDA has anti-inflammatory activity that reduces the protein expression of MMP-9, IL-1β, TNF-α and TGF-β. AUDA downregulates Smad3 and p38 signaling pathways.

S0542

R1487

R1487 is an orally bioavailable and highly selective inhibitor of p38α with an ic50 value of 10 nM.

S4884

Trans-Zeatin

Trans-Zeatina ((E)-Zeatin) is the member of the plant growth hormone family known as cytokinins, which regulate cell division, development, and nutrient processing. Trans-Zeatin inhibits UVB-induced MMP-1 expression, c-Jun activation and phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38 MAP kinases (MAPKs) dose-dependently.

S9315

Praeruptorin A

Praeruptorin A, a naturally existing pyranocumarin, is isolated from the dried root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn. Praeruptorin A inhibits p38/Akt-c-Fos-NFATc1 signaling and PLCγ-independent Ca2+ oscillation. Praeruptorin A can significantly upregulates multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 expression via the constitutive androstane receptor-mediated pathway in vitro, and this should be taken as an herb-drug interaction.

S9075

Mulberroside A

Mulberroside A, isolated from the ethanol extract of Morus alba roots, is widely employed as an active ingredient in cosmetic products due to its anti-tyrosinase and anti-oxidant activities. Mulberroside A decreases the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 and inhibits the activation of NALP3, caspase-1 and NF-κB and the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38.

S8124

BMS-582949

BMS-582949 (PS540446) is a potent and selective p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) inhibitor with IC50 of 13nM,inhibiting both p38 kinase activity and activation of p38.

S7799

Pexmetinib (ARRY-614)

Pexmetinib (ARRY-614) is a potent, orally bioavailable, dual p38 MAPK/Tie-2 inhibitor with IC50 of 4 nM/18 nM in a HEK-293 cell line. Phase 1.

S6807

TA-02

TA-02 is a p38 MAPK inhibitor with IC50 of 20 nM. TA-02 especially inhibits TGFBR-2.

S8706

UM-164

UM-164 is a highly potent, dual c-Src/p38inhibitor of c-Src with a binding constant Kd of 2.7 nM for c-Src and inhibits both p38α and p38β.

S5183

PD 169316

PD 169316 is a potent, selective and cell-permeable p38 MAP kinase inhibitor with IC50 of 89 nM. PD169316 abrogates signaling initiated by both TGFbeta and Activin A. PD169316 shows antiviral activity against Enterovirus71.

製品コード 製品説明 文献中Selleckの製品使用例 お客様のフィードバック
S1950

Metformin HCl

Metformin HCl (1,1-Dimethylbiguanide HCl) decreases hyperglycemia in hepatocytes primarily by suppressing glucose production by the liver (hepatic gluconeogenesis). Metformin promotes mitophagy in mononuclear cells. Metformin induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells through activating JNK/p38 MAPK pathway and GADD153.

2021, S1074-7613(21)00210-7

2021, S1097-2765(21)00232-X

2021, 1-22

S5958

Metformin

Metformin (1,1-Dimethylbiguanide), a widely used drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes, activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in hepatocytes. Metformin promotes mitophagy in mononuclear cells. Metformin induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells through activating JNK/p38 MAPK pathway and GADD153.

2021, 10.1111/jcmm.16742

2021, 12(7):674-685

S2266

Asiatic Acid

Asiatic acid (Dammarolic acid, Asiantic acid) is the aglycone of asiaticoside isolated from the plant Centella asiatica, commonly used in wound healing.

2019, 7(40):6125-6138

2019, 24(12)

2019, 91(8):1440-1447

S2271

Berberine chloride (NSC 646666)

Berberine chloride (NSC 646666, Natural Yellow 18) is a quaternary ammonium salt from the group of isoquinoline alkaloids. Berberine activates caspase 3 and caspase 8, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and the release of cytochrome c. Berberine chloride decreases the expression of c-IAP1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Berberine chloride induces apoptosis with sustained phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, as well as generation of the ROS. Berberine chloride is a dual topoisomerase I and II inhibitor. Berberine chloride is also a potential autophagy modulator.

2021, 12:632201

2021, 26(5)1210

2021, 10(3)250

S7686

ML141

ML141 (CID-2950007) is demonstrated to be a potent, selective and reversible non-competitive inhibitor of Cdc42 GTPase suitable for in vitro assays, with IC50 of 200 nM and selectivity against other members of the Rho family of GTPases (Rac1, Rab2, Rab7). ML141 is associated with an increase in p38 activation and may induce p38-dependent apoptosis/senescence. ML141 also protects neuroblastoma cells from metformin-induced apoptosis.

2021, 36(1):109254

2021, 35(5):e21598

2021, 11(1):8168

製品コード 製品説明 文献中Selleckの製品使用例 お客様のフィードバック
S6347

5'-N-Ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA)

5'-N-Ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, 5'-(N-Ethylcarboxamido)adenosine, Adenosine-5'N-ethylcarboxamide, 5'-Ethylcarboxamidoadenosine) is a stable, nonselective adenosine receptor agonist. 5'-N-Ethylcarboxamidoadenosine acts via multiple mechanisms including: reducing diabetes-induced oxidative stress, inhibiting gene expression of IL-18, TNF-α and ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD54)), and blocking activation of the JNK-MAPK pathway.

製品コード 製品説明 文献中Selleckの製品使用例 お客様のフィードバック
S9514

Rotundic acid

Rotundic acid (Rutundic acid), a natural compound, exhibit cytotoxic activities toward human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), malignant melanoma (A375), SCLC (NCI-H446), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon cancer (HT-29) cell lines.RA induces cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, and apoptosis by modulating the AKT/mTOR and MAPK pathways.

Tags: p38 MAPK activation | p38 MAPK pathway | p38 protein kinase | p38 MAPK signaling | p38 MAP Kinase pathway | p38 MAPK activity | p38 MAPK phosphorylation | p38 MAPK apoptosis | p38 MAPK signaling pathway | p38 MAPK cancer | p38 kinase assay | p38 inhibitors clinical trials | p38 MAPK assay | p38 MAPK inhibitors clinical trials | p38 MAPK inhibitor review