天然化合物ライブラリー

天然化合物製品

製品コード 製品名 製品説明
E2641 trans-Chalcone Trans-Chalcone, the backbone of flavonoids, also is a potent fatty acid synthase (FAS) with IC50 of 17.1 μg/mL, and α-amylase inhibitor, causes cellcycle arrest and induces apoptosis in the breastcancer cell line MCF-7, exerting antifungal and anticancer activities.
E0738 Gipsoside Gypenoside is a triterpene saponin from gypsophila paniculata L.
E0831 Pseudocoptisine chloride Pseudocoptisine chloride (Isocoptisine chloride) is a quaternary alkaloid with benzylisoquinoline skeleton isolated from Corydalis Tuber, inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity with an IC50 of 12.8 μM, showing anti-inflammatory and anti-amnestic effects.
S8233 Prodigiosin Prodigiosin is a red pigment produced by bacteria as a bioactive secondary metabolite, also is a potent inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
E1138 CQ31 CQ31, a xylanase-producing fungus selected from the soil, can use several agricultural solid wastes to ferment high-yield xylanase, in which the corn stalk is the best carbon source.
E3505 Shrubalthea Flower Extract  
E3503 Papaya Leaf Extract  
E3684 Semen Persicae Extract  
E3685 Ampelopsis grossedentata Extract  
E3686 60% Garcinia cambogia Extract  
E3687 Radix Actinidiae Extract  
E3698 Stevia rebaudiana Extract  
E3725 Sapindus saponaria Linnaeus nutshell Extract (40%)  
E3726 Sapindus saponaria Linnaeus nutshell Extract (70%)  
E3727 Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc. Extract  
E3728 Brassica rapa Extract  
E3729 Ulmus macrocarpa Hance seeds Extract  
E3730 Tetradium ruticarpum fruits Extract  
E3731 Chinese Gallnut Extract  
E3732 Cortex Acanthopanacis Senticosus Extract  
E3733 Faeces Trogopterori Extract  
E3734 Schisandrae Chinensis fructus Extract

Schisandrae Chinensis fructus Extract is extracted from Schisandra chinensis Fructus, the dry ripe fruit of <i>Schisandra chinensis</i> (Turcz.) Baill.. Schisandrae Chinensis fructus is mainly used for the treatment of dysphoria and palpitation, insomnia. Schisandrae Chinensis fructus and its active ingredients show a protective role in Neurological diseases, including cerebrovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, or depression.

E3735 Ficus hirta Vahl Extract  
E3736 Gymnema sylvestre Extract  
E3752 Abrus precatorius Bean Extract  
E3773 Marasmius Extract  
E3778 Magnoliae Flos Extract  
E3822 Coix Lacryma-Jobi Seed Extract Extract Coix lacryma-jobi seed Extract is extracted from Coix lacryma-jobi L.. Coix lacryma-jobi seed has anti-inflammatory activity, hypoglycemic activity, the ability to decrease the amount of lipid components in the serum and hypocholesterolemic activity.
E3837 Citrus Maxima Peel Extract  
E3647 Pyrrosiae Folium Extract  
E3041 Alpiniae Katsumadai Extract  
E3061 Castor Bean Extract  
E3063 Pygeum Topengii Bark Extract  
E3123 Rhubarb Extract  
E3127 Rice Flour Extract  
E3129 Garlic Extract (1%)  
E3166 Fermented Blank Bean Extract  
E3167 Amomum Kravanh Fruit Extract  
E3174 Eucommia Extract (Bark, Branch and Leaf)  
E3201 Honey Extract  
E3221 Downy Rosemyrtle Root Extract  
E3289 Knoxia Valerianoides Extract  
E3365 Weigela Grandiflora Fortune Extract  
E3392 Balsam Pear Extract  
E3458 Ilex Paraguariensis Extract  
E3485 Matcha Powder  
E3507 Rose-of-Sharon Seed Extract  
E3521 Auricledleaf Swallowwort Root Extract  
E3544 Cattail Pollen Extract  
E3759 Periploca Sepium Extract  
E3764 Rose Pelargonium Leaf Extract  
E3847 Fructus Akebiae Extract  
E3876 Processed Aconite Extract  
E3522 Achyranthes bidentata root Extract  
E3523 Antrodia cinnamomea Extract  
E3524 Oregano Extract  
E3525 Origanum vulgare leaf Extract  
E3526 Clematis apiifolia Extract  
E3527 Glossy privet fruit Extract  
E3528 Parsley Extract  
E3529 Achillea millefolium Extract  
E3530 Boat-fruited sterculia seed Extract  
E3532 Wedelia Extract  
E3533 Loquat leaf Extract  
E3534 Hops Extract  
E3535 Japanese ardisia Extract  
E3536 Oyster mushroom Extract  
E3537 Apple cider vinegar Extract  
E3538 Apple Extract  
E3539 Grape skin Extract  
E3540 Grapefruit Extract  
E3541 Grapefruit Seed Extract  
E3543 Dandelion Extract  
E3545 Pu-erh tea Extract  
E3547 Extract of Scandent Schefflera Stem and Leaf  
E3548 Chia seed Extract  
E3549 Qamgur Extract  
E3550 Philippine flemingia root Extract  
E3551 Stephania Extract  
E3552 Euphorbia lathyris Extract  
E3553 Climbing groundsel Extract  
E3554 Rhizoma homalomenae Extract  
E3555 Acmella oleracea Extract  
E3556 Pharbitis Extract  
E3557 Radix Peucedani Extract  
E3558 Euryale ferox Extract  
E3559 Radix rubiae Extract  
E3560 Incised notopterygium rhizome Extract  
E3561 Polygonum fagopyrum seed Extract  
E3563 Eggplant Extract  
E3564 Celery Extract  
E3565 Celery seed Extract  
E3566 Largeleaf Gentian Root Extract  
E3567 Ash bark Extract  
E3568 Natural indigo Extract  
E3569 Caulis sinomenii Extract  
E3570 Artemisia annua Extract  
E3571 Green Walnut Husk Extract  
E3572 Green Tangerine peel Extract  
E3580 Ginseng Extract

Ginseng is one of the most widely used herbal remedies, because it is believed to improve energy, physical and emotional health, and well-being.

E3645 Pomegranate seed Extract  
E3646 Selaginella Doederleinii Extract  
E3648 Pyrrosia lingua Extract  
E3649 Centaurea cyanus Extract  
E3650 Diospyroskaki leaf Extract  
E3651 Lycopodiastrum casuarinoides Extract  
E3652 Rehmanniae radix praeparata Extract  
E3654 Althaea rosea Extract(root)  
E3655 Althaea rosea Extract(leaves)  
E3656 Dichroa febrifuga Extract  
E3657 Salvia japonica Extract  
E3659 Silybum mariamum Extract  
E3660 Polypodiodes niponica Extract  
E3661 Prunus persica Extract  
E3662 Buffalo Horn Extract  
E3663 Retinerus luffae Fructus Extract  
E3664 Luffa Cylindrica Stem Extract  
E3665 60% Yucca schidigera Extract  
E3666 Chloranthus helostegius Extract  
E3667 Pine pollen Extract (flower)  
E3668 Pine pollen Extract (flower bud )  
E3669 Pine Nodular Branch Extract  
E3670 Pine Bark Extract

Pine Bark Extract is extracted from Pine bark. Pine bark extract is rich in bioflavonoids, predominantly proanthocyanidins, which are antioxidants. Pine Bark extract is used for preventing or treating various chronic conditions associated with oxidative stress. This is an update of a previously published review.

E3671 Mesembryanthemum spectabile Extract  
E3672 Pine needles Extract  
E3673 Pine nuts Extract  
E3674 Caesalpinia sappan Extract  
E3676 Prunus cerasus Extract  
E3677 Semen Ziziphi Spinosae Extract  
E3678 Vitex agnus-castus Extract  
E3679 Semen aesculi Extract  
E3680 Aesculus chinensis Bunge fruits Extract  
E3681 Cynomorium Songaricum Extract  
E3682 Pseudostellaria heterophylla Extract  
E3683 Santalum album Extract  
E3444 Spirulina Extract  
E3445 Roselle Extract  
E3446 Chinese Starjasmine stem Extract  
E3447 Air-Plant herb Extract  
E3449 Green tea Extract  
E3450 Phaseolus radiatus seed Extract  
E3451 Mung bean peel Extract  
E3452 Green Coffee bean Extract  
E3453 Gnetum parvifolium Extract  
E3454 Verbena herbs Extract  
E3455 Puff-ball Extract  
E3456 Purslane Extract  
E3459 Malan Extract  
E3460 Bones of Cervus elaphus’ Extract  
E3461 Strychnos Extract  
E3462 Coriaria Root Extract  
E3463 Masson pine needle Extract  
E3464 Maca extract  
E3465 Radix Ophiopogonis Extract  
E3466 Barley grass Extract  
E3467 Malt fruit Extract  
E3468 Chasteberry Extract  
E3470 Mango leaf Extract  
E3471 Mang Grass Extract  
E3472 Spicate clerodendranthus Extract  
E3473 Ternate buttercup root Extract  
E3474 Fructus Chebulae Extract  
E3475 Coleus forskohlii Extract  
E3477 Rose hip Extract  
E3482 Myrtle Extract  
E3483 Bee flower Extract  
E3486 Jasmine flower Extract  
E3488 Fucus vesiculosis Extract  
E3489 Cuttlefish grass Extract  
E3487 Ecliptae Herba Extract  
E3490 Peony flower Extract  
E3491 Paeonia suffruticosa root bark Extract  
E3492 Vitex negundo seed Extract  
E3493 Oyster Extract  
E3494 Oyster Shell Extract  
E3495 Oyster Peptide

Oyster peptide is derived from oyster meat by modern bio-enzymatic hydrolysis technology, and further separation, purification, deodorization and spray drying process.

E3497 Momordicae Semen Extract  
E3498 Pigeon pea leaves Extract  
E3484 Ashitaba Extract  
E3480 Rosemary Extract  
E3478 Rose Extract  
E3476 Myrrh Extract  
E3448 Chinese Astilbe rhizome Extract  
E3469 Cranberry Extract  
E3499 Basella rubra Extract  
E3500 Agaric Extract  
E3501 Hibiscus mutabilis flower Extract  
E3502 Papaya Extract  
E3504 Oroxylum indicum seed Extract  
E3506 Hibiscus bark Extract  
E3508 Magnolia Obovata Extract  
E3509 Akebia quinata Extract  
E3510 Costustoot Extract  
E3512 Milk thistle Extract  
E3513 Pumpkin seed Extract  
E3514 Burdock root Extract  
E3515 Great Burdock Achene Extract  
E3516 Beautiful millettia root Extract  
E3517 Ox-gall Extract  
E3518 Daphniphyllum calycinum Extract  
E3519 OX liver Extract  
E3520 Beef tendon grass Extract  
E3199 Petasites Japonicus Extract  
E3200 Bee Pollen Extract  
E3203 Hibiscus Flower Extract  
E3204 Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus Extract  
E3206 Spirodelae Herba Extract  
E3207 Blighted Wheat Extract  
E3208 White Prepared Lateral Root of Aconite Extract  
E3209 Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata Extract  
E3210 Rubi Fructus Extract  
E3212 Prunus Humilis Bunge Extract  
E3213 Glycyrrhizae Rhizoma Extract  
E3214 Nardostachyos Rhizoma Extract  
E3215 Kansui Radix Extract  
E3216 Citrus Extract  
E3217 Penthorum Chinense Pursh Extract  
E3218 Zingiberis Rhizoma Extract  
E3219 Flos Ascheri Extract  
E3222 Sedum Aizoon Extract  
E3223 Alpiniae Officinarum Rhizoma Extract  
E3224 Puerariae Lobatae Radix Extract  
E3225 Pueraria Flower Extract  
E3226 Devil's Claw Extract  
E3340 Jiao San Xian Extract

Jiao Sanxian is composed of Jiao Malt(Coke Malt), Jiao Hawthorn (Coke Hawthorn) and Jiao Shenqu.

E3354 Camellia nitidissima Extract  
E3355 Cinchona Extract  
E3356 Witch hazel Extract  
E3357 Lysimachia christinae Hance extract  
E3358 Rhizoma fagopyri dibotryis Extract  
E3360 Lonicera japonica Extract Lonicera japonica Extract (Japanese honeysuckle Extract), isolated from the leaves and flowers of Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), possesses antipyretic, antibiotic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities.
E3361 Calendula officinalis flower Extract  
E3362 Enoki mushroom Extract  
E3363 Decumbent Bugle Herb Extract  
E3364 Physalis alkekengi Extract  
E3366 Fineleaf schizonepeta herb Extract  
E3367 Garlic chives Extract  
E3368 Chinese Chive seed Extract  
E3369 Radix Platycodonis Extract  
E3371 Chrysanthemi Extract  
E3372 Chicory Extract  
E3374 Exocarpium Citri Rubrum Extract  
E3376 Saw palmetto Extract  
E3377 Symphytum officinale Extract  
E3378 Selaginella Extract  
E3379 Cassia seed Extract  
E3380 Coffee fruit Extract  
E3381 Cabinda Extract  
E3382 Camu Camu fruit Extract  
E3383 Kacip fatimah Extract  
E3384 Kava Extract  
E3385 Cocoa Extract  
E3386 Wormwood Extract  
E3387 Sophora flavescens Extract  
E3388 Latifolin Extract  
E3389 Sophora alopecuroides seed Extract  
E3391 Balsam Pear Powder  
E3393 Fructus azedarach Extract  
E3394 Quassia Extract  
E3395 Tartary buckwheat Extract  
E3396 Bitter almond Extract  
E3397 Coltsfoot Extract  
E3398 Sunflower dish Extract  
E3399 Kelp Extract  
E3400 Chili pepper Extract  
E3401 Polygonum hydropiper Extract  
E3402 Moringa oleifera leaf Extract  
E3403 Moringa pterygosperma seed Extract  
E3404 Radish seed Extract  
E3405 Eupatorium fortunei Extract  
E3407 Blueberry Extract  
E3408 Radix Euphorbiae Ebracteolatae Extract  
E3409 Geranium wilfordii Extract  
E3406 Blue indigo Extract  
E3410 Tripterygium wilfordii Extract  
E3411 Veratrum nigrum L. Extract  
E3412 Quinoa Extract  
E3413 Plum Extract  
E3414 Semen litchi Extract  
E3415 Forsythia suspensa Extract  
E3416 Lotus seed Extract  
E3417 Nitidum Extract  
E3418 Rhizoma Anemones Raddeanae Extract  
E3419 Ganoderma lucidum Extract  
E3420 Trumpet creeper Extract  
E3421 Diverse wormwood herb Extract  
E3422 Spearmint Extract  
E3423 Gentian Extract  
E3424 Solanum nigrum Extract  
E3425 Dragon's blood Extract  
E3426 Piper betle L. Extract  
E3427 Uniflower swisscentaury root Extract  
E3428 Reed rhizome Extract  
E3429 Aloe vera Extract  
E3431 Asparagus Extract  
E3432 Calamine Extract  
E3434 Deer antler velvet Extract  
E3433 Rhaponticum carthamoides transformed root Extract  
E3435 Pyrola herb Extract  
E3436 Liquidambar formosana Extract  
E3437 Apocynum venetum Extract  
E3438 Momordica grosvenori Extract  
E3439 Basil Extract  
E3440 Tamarind Extract  
E3441 Radish root Extract  
E3442 Radish leaves Extract  
E3359 Honeysuckle flower Extract  
E3811 Cashew Extract  
E3812 Rhamnus Cathartica Extract  
E3813 Chrysanthemum Indicum Extract Extract  
E3814 Phyllanthus Urinaria Extract  
E3815 Caulis Polygoni Multiflori Extract Extract  
E3816 Emilia Sonchifolia Extract  
E3817 Eucalyptus Globulus Fruit Extract Extract  
E3818 Solidago Decurrens Extract  
E3820 Leonurus Japonicus Extract  
E3821 Alpinia Oxyphyllae Extract  
E3824 Scepteridium Ternatum Extract  
E3825 Herba Artemisiae Capillaris Extract Extract  
E3826 Tremella Extract Extract  
E3827 Ginkgo Biloba Extract Extract Ginkgo biloba Extract is extracted from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba L.. Ginkgo biloba Extract is used in an extensive range of disorders and diseases, including depressed mood, multi-infarct dementia, cerebral insufficiency (characterized by symptoms such as memory impairment, poor concentration, anxiety, and confusion), myocardial ischemia, stroke, thrombosis, and peripheral occlusive arterial disease (POAD).
E3829 Epimedium Brevicornu Extract  
E3830 Prunus Serrulata Extract  
E3831 Cherry Powder Extract (Pink) Extract  
E3832 Cherry Extract Extract  
E3833 Cherry Extract (Brown) Extract  
E3834 Jasminum Nudiflorum Extract  
E3835 Cordyceps Militaris Extract  
E3836 Cole Flowers Extract  
E3838 Phyllanthus Emblica Extract  
E3839 Houttuynia Cordata Extract Extract  
E3840 Ulmus Pumila Bark Extract  
E3841 Kale Extract  
E3842 Corn Extract  
E3843 Corn Stigma Extract Extract  
E3844 Polygonatum Odoratum Extract  
E3845 Radix Curcumae Root Extract Extract  
E3846 Semen Pruni Extract  
E3848 Hypericum Sampsonii Extract  
E3849 Scrophularia Ningpoensis Extract  
E3850 Rhizoma Corydalis Extract  
E3851 Radix Polygalae Extract  
E3852 Oenothera Biennis Extract  
E3853 Blueberry Fruit Extract  
E3854 Coriolus Versicolor Extract  
E3855 Ruta Graveolens Extract  
E3857 Gieditsia Sinensis Lam Fruit Extract  
E3858 Quillaia Extract Extract  
E3859 Lycopus Extract  
E3860 Euphorbia Helioscopia Extract  
E3861 Rhizoma Alismatis Extract  
E3862 Japanese Xylosma Twig Extract  
E3863 Swertia Bimaculata Extract  
E3864 Cockroach Extract  
E3865 Catharanthus Roseus Extract  
E3867 Fritillariae Thunbergii Bulbus Extract  
E3868 Pearl Extract  
E3869 Anemarrhena Extract  
E3870 Gardenia Fruit Extract Gardenia fruit Extract is extracted from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis., a flowering plant belonging to Rubiaceae family. Gardenia fruit is used not only as a food coloring but also as a medicine to treat hepatic disorders, headache, jaundice, inflammation, and hypertension.
E3871 Valeriana Root Extract  
E3872 Hovenia Dulcis Fruit Extract  
E3873 Hovenia Dulcis Seed Extract  
E3874 Hovenia Dulcis Extract  
E3875 Unripe Bitter Orange Extract  
E3877 Processed Cyperus Extract  
E3878 Stalactitum Extract  
E3879 Glabrous Sarcandra Herb Extract  
E3880 Rhizoma Paridis Extract Extract  
E3881 Swine'S Gallbladder Extract  
E3882 Swine'S Liver Extract Pig's liver Extract is extract from the liver of swine, a valuable edible slaughter by-products suitable for human consumption.
E3883 Umbellate Pore Fungus Extract  
E3884 Galium Aparine Extract  
E3885 Swine‘S Pancreas Extract  
E3886 Bamboo Sap Extract  
E3887 Bamboo Shaving Extract  
E3888 Cortex Illicii Extract  
E3889 Cumin Extract  
E3890 Lithospermum Erythrorhizon Extract  
E3891 Red Cabbages Extract  
E3892 Viola Philphica Munda Extract  
E3893 Alfalfa Extract  
E3894 Ardisia Japonica Extract  
E3895 Perilla Frutescens Extract  
E3896 Perilla Leaf Extract  
E3897 Purple Perilla Seed Extract  
E3898 Radix Asteris Extract  
E3899 Echinacea Extract (flower) Purple coneflower Extract is extracted from purple coneflower, the flower of Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia or Echinacea pallida. Purple coneflower is used as a treatment for respiratory tract infections and inflammatory conditions, including common cold, coughs, bronchitis, and inflammation of mouth and pharynx.
E3900 Echinacea Extract  
E3901 Ribes Henryi Root Extract  
E3801 Morchella Extract  
E3802 Inula Cappa Extract  
E3803 Goat Liver Powder Extract  
E3804 Aspen Flower Extract Extract  
E3805 Psyllium Husk Extract  
E3806 Allium Cepa Extract  
E3807 Chamomile Extract Extract  
E3808 Jerusalem Artichoke Extract  
E3809 Datura Metel Extract  
E3810 Bauhinia Variegata Extract  
E3700 Descurainiae Semen Lepidii Semen Extract  
E3701 Phryma Leptostachya L. var. asiatica Hara Extract  
E3702 Eupolyphage sinensis Walker Extract  
E3703 Talinum paniculatum Extract  
E3704 Rumex madaio Makino Extract  
E3705 Smilax glabra Extract  
E3706 Cortex pseudolaricis Extract  
E3707 Chenopodium ambrosioides Extract  
E3708 Cephaelis ipecacuanha Extract  
E3709 Lagotis glauca Extract  
E3710 Chinese Dodder Seed Extract  
E3712 Pisum sativum Extract  
E3713 Vaccariae semen Extract  
E3714 Clematis chinensis Extract  
E3715 Crinum Asiaticum Extract  
E3716 Equisetum arvense Extract  
E3717 Lactuca sativa Extract  
E3718 Marsdeniae Tenocissimae Extract  
E3719 Seed of Chinese Tallowtree Extract  
E3720 Oolong tea Extract  
E3721 Fructus mume Extract  
E3722 Zaocys dhumnades Extract  
E3723 Lindera aggregata leaves Extract  
E3724 Ficus carica Extract  
E3737 Passiflora caerulea Linnaeus Extract  
E3738 Lycopersicon esculentum Miller Extract  
E3739 Panax quinquefolium Extract  
E3740 Isodon serra Extract  
E3741 Herba Siegesbeckiae Extract  
E3742 SHILAJIT Asphaltum Extract  
E3743 Asarum heterotropoides Extract  
E3744 Prunella Vulgaris Extract  
E3745 Corydalis decumbens Extract  
E3746 hsian-tsao Extract  
E3747 Agrimonia pilosa Extract  
E3748 Epimedium Extract  
E3749 Curculigo orchioides Extract  
E3750 Opuntia dillenii Extract  
E3753 Coriander Extract  
E3754 Coriander Roots Extract  
E3755 Cyperus Rotundus Extract  
E3756 Vetiveria Zizanioides Extract  
E3757 Shiitake Mushroom Extract  
E3760 Cymbopogon Citratus Extract  
E3761 Elsholtzia Ciliata Extract  
E3762 Amomum Extract  
E3763 Sweet Potatoes Extract  
E3765 Citrus Medica Extract  
E3766 Feverfew Extract Extract  
E3767 Justicia Gendarussa Extract  
E3768 Foeniculum Vulgare Extract  
E3769 Cirsium Setosum Extract Extract  
E3770 Wheat Germ Extract Extract  
E3771 Millet Extracts Extract  
E3772 Eyebright Extract Extract  
E3774 Chlorella Pyrenoidosa Extract  
E3775 Valeriana Officinalis Extract  
E3776 Allium Macrostemnon Extract  
E3777 Tinospora Cordifolia Extract  
E3780 Oyster Mushroom Extract Extract  
E3781 Bombyx Moril Extract  
E3782 Arctostaphylos Uva Ursi Leaf Extract  
E3783 Spiraea Salicifolia Extract  
E3784 Cynanchum Paniculatum Extract  
E3785 Radix Dipsaci Extract  
E3786 Radix Scrophulariae Extract  
E3787 Flos Inulae Extract  
E3788 Smallanthus Sonchifolius Extract  
E3789 Saussurea Involucrata Extract  
E3790 Sambucus Adnata Extract  
E3791 Surgentodoxa Cuneata Extract  
E3792 Lavandula Angustifolia Extract  
E3793 Urtica Fissa Extract  
E3794 Brucea Javanica Extract  
E3796 Flaxseed Extract  
E3795 Commelina Communis Extract  
E3797 Butea Superba Extract  
E3798 Avena Sativa L. Extract  
E3799 Arrhenatherum Elatius Extract

Arrhenatherum elatius Extract is  extracted from <I>Arrhenatherum elatius</i> (L.) Pressl.. Arrhenatherum elatius has ability to remove heavy metals from soil.

E3800 Nidus Collocaliae Extract  
E3576 Semen celosiae Extract  
E3577 Okra Extract  
E3579 Undaria pinnatifida Extract  
E3582 Ginseng leaf Extract  
E3583 Honeysuckle flower Extract  
E3584 Lonicera japonica vine Extract  
E3585 Desertliving cistanche herb Extract  
E3586 Myristica fragrans Extract  
E3587 Cinnamon Extract  
E3588 Boswellia Extract  
E3589 Evodia Lepta Bark Extract  
E3591 Common burreed tuber Extract  
E3592 Panax notoginseng Root Extract  
E3590 Radix berberidis Extract  
E3593 Panax notoginseng Rhizoma Extract  
E3594 Radix tetrastigme Extract  
E3595 White mulberry root-bark Extract  
E3596 Phellinus linteus Extract  
E3597 Herba taxilli Extract  
E3598 Morus alba bark Extract  
E3599 Mantis egg-case Extract  
E3600 Mulberry Extract  
E3601 Mulberry Extract (leaves) Mulberry Extract (leaves) is extracted from Mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves , which are traditional Chinese herbs. Mulberry leaves exert several biological functions, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammation, antidiabetic, and antitumor.
E3658 Double coptis chinensis Extract  
E3689 Radix Asparagi Extract Radix Asparagi Extract is extracted from the dry root of Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr.(Liliaceae). Asparagi radix is efficacious against inflammation diseases due to its high antioxidant activity. The extract from Asparagi radix can inhibit browning reaction of mushroom, similar to ascorbic acid.
E3690 Semiaquilegiae Radix Extract  
E3691 Gastrodia Rhizome Extract  
E3692 lucid asparagus Extract  
E3693 Arisaema erubescens Extract  
E3694 Geranium Extract  
E3695 Hypericum japonicum Extract  
E3696 Panax notoginseng Extract  
E3578 Fringed pink Extract  
E3139 Angelica Sinensis Extract  
E3169 Angelicae Pubescentis Radix Extract  
E3170 Typhonium giganteum Engl Extract  
E3171 Lamiophlomis Herba Extract  
E3172 Juniper Berry Extract  
E3173 Eucommiae Cortex Extract  
E3175 Eucommia Ulmoides Male Flower Extract  
E3176 Curcumae Rhizoma Extract  
E3177 Centipeda Minima Extract  
E3178 Catechu Extract  
E3179 Pinelliae Preparatum Rhizoma Extract  
E3181 Anona Squamosa Leaf Extract  
E3182 Carica Papaya Fruit Extract  
E3183 Carica Papaya Leaf Extract  
E3184 Solanum Lycopersicum Extract  
E3185 Psidium Guajava Extract  
E3186 Sennae Folium Extract  
E3187 Descolor Cinquefoil Herb Extract  
E3188 Cissus Quadrangularis Extract  
E3189 Saposhnikoviae Radix Extract  
E3190 Stephaniae Tetrandrae Radix Extract  
E3191 Euphorbia Hirta Extract  
E3193 Saponaria Officinalis Extract  
E3194 Torreyae Semen Extract  
E3195 Combretumalfredii Hance Extract  
E3196 Suzuki Extract  
E3197 Canarii Fructus Extract  
E3198 Kadsura longipedunculata Ratan Extract  
E3227 Uncaria Extract  
E3228 Cynodon Dactylon Extract  
E3229 Lycii Fructus Extract  
E3230 Eriocauli Flos Extract  
E3231 Setariae Fructus Germinatus Extract  
E3232 Rhizoma Drynariae Extract  
E3233 Trichosanthis Fructus Extract  
E3234 Trichosanthis Pericarpium Extract  
E3235 Hypericum Perforatum Extract  
E3236 Champion Wood Fern Extract  
E3237 Euonymus alatus Sieb Extract  
E3238 Bidens Bipinnata Extract  
E3239 Osmanthus Extract  
E3240 Longan Extract  
E3241 Cinnamomi Ramulus Extract  
E3242 Gecko Extract  
E3243 Pinus Pinaster Bark Extract  
E3244 Laminaria Japonica Extract  
E3245 Piperis Kadsurae Caulis Extract  
E3246 Lygodii Spora Extract  
E3247 Hainan Nightshade Fruit Extract  
E3248 Oriental Variegated Coralbean Bark Extract  
E3299 Polygonum Cuspidatum Extract  
E3300 Pericarpium Zanthoxyli peel Extract  
E3301 Peanut hull Extract  
E3302 Peanut seed coat Extract  
E3303 Achyranthes bidentata Blume root Extract Achyranthes bidentata Blume root Extract, isolated from the dried roots of Achyranthes bidentata Blume, has a beneficial effect on inhibition of adipogenesis and controlling body weight in rats fed with a high-fat diet.
E3304 Sophora japonica fruit Extract

Sophora japonica fruit Extract (Fructus Sophorae Extract, Rexflavone), isolated from the fruits of <i>Sophora japonica</i>, contains high contents of isoflavones, and is a health functional food ingredient that significantly improves the menopausal index.

E3305 Sophora flower Extract

Sophora flower Extract is extracted from dried flowers of <i>Sophora japonica</i> (Huaihua), which is used in China, Japan and Korea for treating haematemesis and bleeding haemorrhoids.

E3306 Phellodendron amurense bark Extract

Phellodendron amurense bark Extract (Nexrutine), isolated from the barks of <i>Phellodendron amurense</i>, has shown a favorable effect on prostate cancer in vivo and in vitro.

E3308 Daylily flower Extract

Daylily flower Extract, isolated from the flower and bud parts of Hemerocallis citrina, has the effects of neuroprotection.

E3309 Polygala fallax Hemsl. rhizome Extract  
E3310 Brassica juncea seed Extract

Brassica juncea seed Extract, isolated from the seeds of brown (<i>Brassica juncea</i>) mustard, contains abundant phenolic compound.

E3311 Rhizoma polygonati root Extract

Rhizoma polygonati root Extract, isolated from the roots of <i>Rhizoma polygonati</i>, has been used for a long history with many chemical components in inducing anti-cancer, anti-aging, anti-diabetes, anti-fatigue, and more prevention of diseases or acts as nutrition sources in food

E3312 Rhizoma Coptidis Root Extract

Rhizoma coptidis root Extract, isolated from the dried roots of medicinal plants from <i>Rhizoma coptidis</i> (Ranunculaceae), has been used by Chinese medicinal physicians for more than 2000 years.

E3313 Rhizoma Coptidis Fibrous Root Extract  
E3315 Astragalus rhizome Extract

Astragalus rhizome Extract, isolated from the rhizome of Radix Astragali, contains main constituents of polysaccharides, flavonoids, and saponins, amino acids and trace elements, with anti-inflammatory, immunomodulation, anti-oxidant, and anticancer effects.

E3316 Scutellariae rhizome Extract

Scutellariae rhizome Extract is isolated from the rhizome of <i>Scutellaria baicalensis</i>, which contains baicalin as a main constituent, has long been used in China, Japan, and Korea as a traditional medicine and functional food for inflammation, fever, hepatitis, allergic disease, hypertension, etc.

E3317 Okra fruit Extract

Okra fruit extract (Abelmoschus esculentus fruit extract), isolated from the fruits of <i>Abelmoschus esculentus</i>, is used as an alternative treatment because of its various medicinal properties, such as antidiabetic, antioxidant, antiplasmodial, antibacterial, anticancer, analgesic, antidiarrheal, and anti-inflammatory properties.

E3318 Cistus Incanus Extract

Cistus Incanus Extract, isolated from Mediterranean shrub species Cistus incanus L., is rich in polyphenolic compounds, possesses significant antioxidant activity, and may be effective active ingredients for the cosmetic industry. 

E3319 Grifola frondosa Extract  
E3321 Fructus cannabis Extract  
E3322 Agastache rugosa Extract  
E3323 Plumeria rubra Extract  
E3324 Herba abri Extract  
E3325 Croton crassifolius Geisel. Extract  
E3326 Gizzard pepsin Extract  
E3327 Chinese fevervine herb Extract  
E3328 Suberect spatholobus stem Extract  
E3329 Centella asiatica Extract  
E3330 Agaricus blazei Extract  
E3331 Impatiens balsamina L. Extract  
E3332 Nerium oleander Extract  
E3333 Viburnum dilatatum Extract  
E3334 Bacopa monniera Extract  
E3335 Curcuma longa Extract  
E3337 Larva of a Silkworm with Batrytis Extract  
E3338 Lignum Dalbergiae odoriferae Extract  
E3339 Malt Extract  
E3341 Hawthorn Extract  
E3342 Carob bean Extract  
E3343 Gynostemma pentaphyllum Extract

Gynostemma pentaphyllum Extract, isolated from the herb of <i>Gynostemma pentaphyllum</i>, enhances exercise performance by promoting myotube differentiation and mitochondrial metabolism through the upregulation of PGC-1α in C2C12 skeletal muscle.

E3344 Yeast extract  
E3345 ElderBerry Extract  
E3346 Oriental Paperbush flower Extract  
E3347 Mustard Extract  
E3348 Capsella bursa-pastoris Extract  
E3349 Broccoli Extract  
E3350 Goodyera kwangtungensis Tso. extract  
E3351 Abrus mollis Extract  
E3352 Radix Tinosporae Extract  
E3353 Acacia farnesiana Extract  
E3574 Cyclocarya paliurus Extract  
E3121 Chaulmoogratree Seed Extract  
E3307 Soybean Extract Soybean Extract, isolated from the seeds of Soybean, modulates retinoic acid-related genes and shows photo-protective effects, suggesting that soybean Extract could be an anti-ageing ingredient that can be safely used under the sunlight.
E2762 Azadirachtin B

Azadirachtin B, a limonoid isolated from seed kernels of <i>Azadirachta indica</i>, has insecticidal, nematocidal, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and osteogenic properties.

E3122 Arecae Pericarpium Extract  
E3124 Cirsii Japonici Herba Extract  
E3125 Hordeum Vulgare Extract  
E3126 Rice Extract  
E3128 Isatidis Folium Extract  
E3130 Garlic Extract  
E3131 Jujubae Fructus Extract  
E3132 Citrus Aurantium Flower Extract  
E3134 Sphaeranthus Africanus Extract  
E3135 Salvia Miltiorrhiza Extract  
E3137 Fermented Soybean Extract  
E3138 Lophatheri Herba Extract  
E3141 Codonopsis Pilosula Extract  
E3142 Semen Canavaliae Extract  
E3143 Ground Ginseng Extract  
E3145 Kochiae Fructus Extract  
E3146 Sweet Potato Root Extract  
E3148 Euphorbiae Humifusae Herba Extract  
E3149 Pheretima Extract  
E3150 Dinian Herb Extract  
E3151 Sanguisorbae Radix Extract  
E3152 Junci Medulla Extract  
E3153 Corchorus Olitorius Extract  
E3154 Hanging vine fruit extract  
E3156 Clitoria Ternatea Flower Extract  
E3157 Erycibes Caulis Extract  
E3158 Caryophylli Flos Flower Extract  
E3159 Caryophylli Flos Extract  
E3160 Eurycoma Longifolia Extract  
E3162 Wax Gourd Peel Extract  
E3163 Fructus Cucurbitae Extract  
E3164 Malvae Fructus Extract  
E3165 Rabdosiae Rubescentis Herba Extract  
E3168 Bean Sprout Extract  
E3034 Cynanchi Atrati Extract  
E3035 Dittany Bark Extract  
E3037 Solanum lyratum Extract  
E3038 White Kidney Bean Extract  
E3039 Angelica Root Extract  
E3040 Stemonae Extract  
E3042 Lily Bulbs Extract  
E3043 Thymus Serpillum Extract  
E3044 Passion Fruit Extract  
E3045 Chinese Arborvilea Seed Extract  
E3047 Isatis Extract  
E3048 Chestnut Extract  
E3049 Lobeliae Chinensis Extract  
E3050 Pinelliae Extract  
E3051 Scutellaria Barbata Extract  
E3046 Patriniae Extract  
E3052 Cabbage Extract  
E3053 Mentha Arvensis Leaf Extract  
E3054 Primula Malacoides Extract  
E3055 Rhizoma Menispermi Extract  
E3056 Coasial GIehnia Root Extract  
E3059 Piper longum Extract  
E3060 Dioscorea Sativa Extract  
E3064 Polygonum Aviculare Extract  
E3065 Lentil Extract  
E3066 Miraclefruit Extract  
E3067 Trionycis Carapax Extract  
E3068 Arccae Semen Extract  
E3069 Spinach Extract  
E3070 Macleaya Cordata Extract  
E3071 Malaytea Scurfpea Extract  
E3072 Paniculata Extract  
E3073 Silkworm Chrysalis Extract  
E3074 Xanthium Sibiricum Extract  
E3075 Atractylodis Rhizoma Extract  
E3076 Brown Rice Extract  
E3077 Tsaoko Fructus Extract  
E3078 Sarcandra Glabra Extract  
E3079 Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix Extract  
E3080 Platycladi Cacumen Extract  
E3081 Tea Seed Extract  
E3082 Bupleurum Extract  
E3083 Cicada Slough Extract  
E3084 Hedera Helix Extract  
E3085 Dichroae Radix Extract  
E3086 5% Artichoke Leaf EXTRACT  
E3087 Artichoke Extract  
E3088 Plantaginis Herba Extract  
E3089 Plantaginis Semen Extract  
E3090 Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum Extract  
E3091 Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Extract  
E3092 Paeoniae Radix Rubra Extract  
E3093 Vignae Semen Extract  
E3094 Flatstem Milkvetch Seed Extract  
E3095 Pyrethrum Extract  
E3096 Broussonetiae Fructus Extract  
E3098 Fritillariae Cirrhosae Bulbus Extract  
E3099 Fritillaria Cirrhosa Seed Extract  
E3100 Sichuan Pepper Extract  
E3101 Toosendan Fructus Extract  
E3102 Cyathulae Root Extract  
E3103 Aconiti Root Extract  
E3104 Chuanxiong Rhizoma Extract  
E3105 Cochinchina Cudrania Root Extract  
E3106 Dioscoreae Nipponicae Rhizoma Extract  
E3107 Andrographis Herba Extract  
E3109 Cymbidium Extract  
E3110 Graviola Extract  
E3111 Tribulus Terrestris Extract  
E3112 Rosa Roxburghii Fruit Extract  
E3113 Rosa Roxburghii Root Extract  
E3115 Erythrina Variegata Extract  
E3116 Acanthopanax Senticosus Extract  
E3117 Amla Extract  
E3118 Processed Cyperi Rhizoma Extract  
E3119 Damiana Extract  
E3249 Mimosa Pudica Root Extract  
E3250 Mimosa Pudica Extract  
E3251 Tropaeolum Majus Extract  
E3253 Chrysanthemum Morifolium Ramat Extract  
E3254 Terminalia Chebula Extract  
E3255 Albiziae Flos Extract  
E3256 Albiziae Cortex Extract  
E3257 Polygoni Multiflori Root Extract  
E3258 Nelumbinis Folium Extract  
E3259 Walnut Extract  
E3260 Seminis Juglandis Septum Extract  
E3261 Juglandis Semen Extract  
E3262 Walnut Leave Extract  
E3263 Black Soya Bean Extract  
E3264 Black Bone Rattan extract  
E3265 Black Pepper Extract  
E3266 Black Carrot Extract  
E3267 Black Coffee Extract  
E3268 Black Quinoa Extract  
E3269 Black Ant Extract  
E3270 Blackberry Extract  
E3271 Black Cohosh Extract  
E3272 Black Garlic Extract  
E3273 Black Sesame Extract  
E3274 Nigella Sativa Extract (Herb)  
E3275 Nigella Sativa Extract (Seed)  
E3276 Red Ginseng Extract  
E3277 Black Tea Extract  
E3278 Black Tea Root Extract  
E3279 Kombucha Extract  
E3280 Trifolium Pratense Extract  
E3281 Eleutherine Plicata Extract  
E3282 Taxus Cuspidata Extract  
E3283 Red Bean Extract  
E3284 Safflower Extract  
E3285 Rhodiola Rosea Extract  
E3286 Rambutan Extract  
E3287 Red Yeast Rice extract  
E3288 Red Raspberry Extract  
E3290 Citrus Grandis Fruit Extract  
E3291 Hydrolyzed Rhodophycea Extract  
E3292 Hericium Erinaceus Extract  
E3293 Magnolia Bark Extract  
E3294 Piper Nigrum Seed Extract  
E3296 Juglans Regia Extract  
E3297 Fenugreek Seed Extract  
E3298 Viscum Coloratum Extract  
E3019 Semen Ginkgo Extract  
E3020 Hedyotic Diffusa Extract  
E3021 Chaga Mushroom Extract  
E3022 Bletilla Striata Root Extract  
E3023 White Mustard Seed Extract  
E3024 Ampelopsis Japonica Root Extract  
E3025 Salix Alba Bark Extract  
E3026 White Radish Extract  
E3027 Imperata Cylindrica Root Extract  
E3028 Chelidonium Majus Extract  
E3029 White Paeony Root Extract  
E3031 Bunge Auriculate Root Extract  
E3032 Atractyloides Macrocephala Root Extract  
E3033 Pulsatillae Extract  
E3001 Donkey-hide gelatin Extract Donkey-hide gelatin Extract is extracted from Donkey-hide gelatin (Asini Corii Colla, ACC), a gelatinous Chinese medicine known as Ejiao in Chinese. Donkey-hide gelatin is applied as an important food therapy product to optimize immune response, improve metabolic balance and treat gynecological diseases.
E3002 Asafetida Extract  
E3003 Artemisis Princeps Leaf Extract  
E3004 Eucalyptus Leaf Extract  
E3005 Boesenbergia Pandurata Extract  
E3006 Fructus Anisi Stellati Extract  
E3007 Marlea platanifolia Extract  
E3008 Eight clawed Golden Dragon extract  
E3009 Morinda Root Extract  
E3010 Muira Puama Extract  
E3011 Sarsaparilla Extract  
E3012 Semen Lablab Album Extract  
E3013 Chinese Cabbage Extract  
E3014 White Tea Extract  
E3015 Amomum Kravanh Extract  
E3016 Cissus modecoides var Extract  
E3017 Poria Cocos Extract  
E3018 Giant typhonium rhizome extract  
E3000 Ligusticum Sinense Extract Ligusticum Sinense Extract is extracted from Ligusticum sinense, a Chinese medicinal plant.
E3603 Ramulus Mori Extract Ramulus Mori Extract is extracted from Ramulus mori (Mulberry twigs), the dry branch of Morus alba L.. Ramulus Mori is a traditional medicine widely used for diabetes treatment. The major active components of Ramulus Mori are mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, resveratrol, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 7-hydroxycoumarin, and morin, and the components have been demonstrated to possess anti-cancer, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties.
E3604 Adenophora Stricta Extract Adenophora stricta Extract is extracted from Adenophora stricta Miq.. Adenophora stricta is commonly used to reduce phlegm, clear lung and tonify stomach.
E3605 Sea buckthorn Extract (fruits) Sea buckthorn Extract (fruits) is extracted from the fruits of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.). Sea buckthorn has significant cardioprotective activity and exerts many positive healing effects on the cardiovascular system, including inhibiting blood platelet activation (especially platelet aggregation), lowering cholesterol concentration and blood pressure, and providing antioxidant activity. Sea buckthorn also has antibacterial and antiviral properties.
E3606 Sea buckthorn Extract (leaves) Sea buckthorn Extract (leaves) is extracted from the leaves of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.). Sea buckthorn has significant cardioprotective activity and exerts many positive healing effects on the cardiovascular system, including inhibiting blood platelet activation (especially platelet aggregation), lowering cholesterol concentration and blood pressure, and providing antioxidant activity. Sea buckthorn also has antibacterial and antiviral properties.
E3607 Crateva nurvala Extract Crateva nurvala Extract is extracted from the stem bark of Crataeva nurvala Buch.. Crateva nurvala, an important medicinal plant, has been studied mainly with the stem bark part for obstructive and nonobstructive uropathies. Crateva nurvala is also used for the treatment of prostate enlargement and bladder sensitivity.
E3608 Semen astragali complanati Extract Semen astragali complanati Extract is extracted from Semen Astragali Complanati, the dried ripe seed of Flatstem Milkvetch (Astragalus complanatus Bunge) (Leguminosae). The major contents of Semen astragali complanati include fatty acids, amino acids, polysaccharides, flavonoids, triterpene glycosides and trace elements. Semen astragali complanati exhibits a number of therapeutic effects on chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and cancers.
E3609 Elaeagnus angustifolia Extract Elaeagnus angustifolia Extract is extracted from the fruits of Elaeagnus angustifolia L.. Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit extract has acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities.
E3610 Amomum villosum Extract Amomum villosum Extract is extracted from Amomum villosum Lour., a herbaceous plant in the ginger family. Amomum villosum has been proven to be effective in treating gastrointestinal diseases. Treatment with Amomum villosum water extract significantly attenuates intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) rats.
E3611 Camellia japonica Extract Camellia japonica Extract is extracted from the flowers of Camellia japonica L.. Camellia japonica possesses antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumoral activity and as being a huge source of polyphenols such as the catechins.
E3612 Cremastra appendiculata Extract Cremastra appendiculata Extract is extracted from Cremastra appendiculata (Pseudobulbus Cremastrae seu Pleiones), the dried pseudostem of plants of the Orchidaceae family. Cremastra appendiculata has antibacterial, antihypertensive, gout, antitumor, and acetylcholine receptor M3-blocking effects. The extract of cremastra appendiculata can be used to treat Lewis lung cancer, liver cancer, and breast cancer.
E3613 Sophora tonkinensis Extract Sophora tonkinensis Extract is extracted from the dried root ofSophora tonkinensis Gapnep.. Sophora tonkinensis is used in the treatment of pharyngeal and laryngeal diseases. Sophora tonkinensis has hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, and anticancer effects and produces obvious toxicity to the liver and nervous and cardiovascular systems.
E3614 Arnica montana Extract Arnica montana Extract is extracted from the flowers of Arnica montana L. (Asteraceae). Arnica montana possesses anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory, anti-sclerotic, analgesic, antifungal, antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer bioactivities.
E3615 Anisodus tangutcus Extract Anisodus tangutcus Extract is extracted from the root of Scopolia tangutica Maxim. Anisodus tanguticus root has an important active tropane alkaloid, Anisodine. Anisodine has significant therapeutic effects on ocular diseases, motion sickness and migraine, acute circulatory shock, and organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.
E3616 Kaempferia galanga Extract Kaempferia galanga Extract is extracted from the rhizome of Kaempferia galanga L. (Zingiberaceae). Kaempferia galanga is used to get relief from indigestion, swelling, pain, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia.
E3617 Galega officinalis Extract Galega officinalis Extract is extracted from the seeds of Galega officinalis L.. Galega officinalis extract has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties.
E3618 Yam Extract Yam Extract is extracted from yam (Chinese yam), the rhizome of various species of genus Dioscorea opposita Thunb. (Dioscoreaceae). Yam contains mainly proteins, sugars, vitamins, fats, choline, amylase, iodine, iron, calcium, phosphorus, and other indispensable trace elements in the human body. The main pharmacological effects of yam are antioxidative, anti-aging, anti-tumor, and hypoglycemic. Yam also can enhance immunity.
E3619 Lonicerae Flos Extract Lonicerae Flos Extract is extracted from Lonicerae flos, the flower bud of Lonicera macranthoides Hand.-Mazz., Lonicera hypoglauca Miq., Lonicera confusa DC., or Lonicera fulvotomentosa Hsu et S. C. Cheng. Lonicerae flos is a traditional Chinese medicine used in the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. Lonicerae flos extract increases survival rates of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced septic rats.
E3620 Corni Fructus Extract Corni Fructus Extract is extracted from the fruits of Fructus Corni (Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.). Fructus Corni is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that possesses pharmacological actions against inflammation, diabetic nephropathy, tumors, oxidation and aging.
E3621 Crataegi fructus Extract Crataegi fructus Extract is extracted from the fruits of Crataegi fructus (hawthorn). Crataegi fructus is dry ripe fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.var. major N. E. Br. or Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.. The extracts and compounds from fructus crataegi show a variety of pharmacological activities, such as a protective effect on patients with heart failure, as well as an increased force of myocardial contraction, improved coronary circulation, antioxidant effects and antimicrobial activities.
E3623 Pelargonium hortorum Extract Pelargonium hortorum Extract is extracted from Pelargonium hortorum L.H. Bailey. Pelargonium cultivars have been reported as metal hyperaccumulators, with the ability to acidify soil pH. Pelargonium hortroum has the ability to accumulate Pb in shoots.
E3624 Phytolaccae Radix Extract Phytolaccae Radix Extract is extracted from Phytolaccae Radix (the dried root of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. or Phytolacca americana L.). Radix Phytolaccae is widely used for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases.
E3625 Cnidii Fructus Extract Cnidii Fructus Extract is extracted from Cnidii Fructus, the dry ripe fruit of Cnidium monnieri (L.)Cuss.. Chinese herbal medicine Cnidii Fructus has an outstanding effect on chronic lumbar pain and impotence, also has been used against osteoporosis with high frequency.
E3626 Snake Gallbladder Extract Snake Gallbladder Extract is extracted from Snake gallbladder. Snake gallbladder has multiple pharmacological effects, such as relieving coughs and asthma, as well as improving human immunity and visual acuity. Snake gallbladder has been believed in various Asian countries to improve visual acuity and alleviate rheumatism.
E3627 Belamcandae Rhizoma Extract Belamcandae Rhizoma Extract is extracted from dry roots of Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC.. Belamcanda chinensis is mainly used to treat sore throat, bronchitis, and chronic tracheitis. Isoflavonoids, including irigenin, isolated from the rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis have been suggested to possess not only antioxidative and anti-inflammatory, but also antitumor activities.
E3629 Lycopodii Herba Extract Lycopodii Herba Extract is extracted from Lycopodii Herba, the dried whole plant of Lycopodium japonicum Thunb. (Lycopodiaceae). Lycopodii Herba possesses anti-inflammation activity, antioxidative activity, and antitumor activity; and has been traditionally used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, contusion, quadriplegia, dysmenorrhea.
E3630 Massa Medicata Fermentata Extract  
E3631 Cimicifugae Rhizoma Extract  
E3632 Rehmanniae Radix Extract  
E3633 Ginger Extract  
E3634 Ginger Extract(1%)  
E3635 Chasteberry Extract  
E3636 Ocimum sanctum Extract  
E3637 Acorus tatarinowii Extract  
E3638 Lysinotus pauciflorus Extract  
E3639 Gypsum fibrosum Extract  
E3640 Dendrobii caulis Extract  
E3641 Salvia Chinensis Benth Extract  
E3642 Haliotidis concha Extract  
E3643 Pomegranate Peel Extract  
E0840 Yakuchinone A Yakuchinone A, a natural product isolated from Alpinia oxyphylla Miquel (Zingiberaceae), has strong inhibitory effects on the synthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) and leukotrienes (LTs).
E2012 Ginkgolide K Ginkgolide K, isolated from Ginkgo biloba, induces protective autophagy through the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling pathway, and possesses neuroprotective activity.
S0970 Curzerene Curzerene, a sesquiterpene isolated from the rhizome of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn with anti-cancer activity, inhibits glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) mRNA and protein expression and induces cell apoptosis.
E0583 Isoscabertopin

Isoscabertopin is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from <i>Elephantopus scaber L</i> and shows anti-tumor activities.

E0543 OJV-VI

OJV-VI is isolated from <i>ophiopogonis</i>.

E2023 Hypocrellin B

Hypocrellin B is a natural product isolated from the fungi <i>Hypocrella bambusae</i> and <i>Shiraia bambusicola</i> with the induction of apoptosis.

S6370 Dendrophenol Dendrophenol (Moscatilin) is from Dendrobium nobile, a naturally occurring bibenzyl compound with potential antimutagenic activity.
S0938 Sakuranetin Sakuranetin belongs to the group of methoxylated flavanones, with a widely bioactivity of antiproliferative against human cell lines typical for B16BL6 melanoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and colon cancer (Colo 320), antiviral activity towards human rhinovirus 3 and influenza B virus, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antiparasitic, antimutagenic, and antiallergic properties.
E0505 Olive oil Olive oil comes from the fruits of Olea europae trees with a beneficial effect on human health, including the antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity when olive oil is in regular diet.
E0506 Soybean oil Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean (Glycine max).
E0656 7-Methylcoumarin 7-Methylcoumarin can inhibit the growth of S. aureus and the growth of Gram-positive bacteria within a concentration of 0.8–3.6 μg/ml, and also has a strong hepatoprotective activity.
E0748 Opoponax oil Opoponax oil is isolated and extracted from Commiphora erythraea (opoponax), with a promising insecticidal property.
E1124 Narciclasine Narciclasine (Lycoricidinol), an isocarbostyril alkaloid narciclasine, targets STAT3 via distinct mechanisms in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. Narciclasine suppresses phosphorylation, activation, dimerization, and nuclear translocation of STAT3 by directly binding with the STAT3 SH2 domain and leads STAT3 degradation. Narciclasine is a plant growth modulator. Narciclasine modulates the Rho/Rho kinase/LIM kinase/cofilin signaling pathway, greatly increasing GTPase RhoA activity as well as inducing actin stress fiber formation in a RhoA-dependent manner.
E0650 γ-Terpinene γ-Terpinene (γ-TPN), a monoterpene, is an orally active antioxidant compound which can scavenge radicals directly.
E0651 Garlic oil Garlic oil blocks tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis by inducing phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes.
S4448 Imidacloprid-urea Imidacloprid-urea with a role as a marine xenobiotic metabolite, is the primary imidacloprid soil metabolite, whereas imidacloprid-olefin is the main plant-relevant metabolite and is more toxic to insects than imidacloprid.
E0653 Trans-ferulic acid Trans-ferulic acid is a potent activator of AMPKunder high glucose condition.
E0478 Procyanidin C1 Procyanidin C1 is a polyphenolic component of grape seed extract, increases the healthspan and lifespan of mice through its action on senescent cells. PCC1 is a natural senotherapeutic agent with in vivo activity and a potential intervention to delay, alleviate or prevent age-related pathologies.
S0936 Aloin B Aloin B (Isobarbaloin), isolated from Aloe vera, is one isomer of Aloin and has anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) acyivity.
S0944 Benzoylaconitine Benzoylaconine (Isaconitine, Pikraconitin) is an alkaloid derived from the Chinese traditional medicine Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata (Fuzi). Benzoylaconitine inhibits production of IL-6 and IL-8 via MAPK, Akt, NF-κB signaling in IL-1β-induced human synovial cells.
E0239 (-)-Catechin gallate (-)-Catechin gallate ((-)-CG) is a catechin polyphenol that has been found in green tea extracts with diverse biological activities.
E0240 Procyanidin B1

Procyanidin B1, a natural polyphenolic compound that has antioxidant properties, inhibits Kv10.1 channel and suppresses the evolution of hepatoma.

E0241 Asiaticoside B

Asiaticoside B is a triterpene glycoside isolated from Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, with anti-cancer activity.

E0242 Picrocrocin Picrocrocin, the chemical most responsible for the bitter taste of saffron, is isolated from saffron and inhibits proliferation of cancer cells.
E0243 Emodin-8-glucoside Emodin-8-glucoside (Emodin glucoside B, Anthraglycoside B, Emodin glucoside B) is an anthraquinone derivative isolated from Aloe vera, binds to minor groove of DNA.
E0244 Acevaltrate Acevaltrate, an active component derived from the herbal plant Valeriana jatamansi Jones, is strikingly potent to induce GBM cell apoptosis. Acevaltrate inhibits the Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the rat kidney and brain hemispheres with IC50 of 22.8 μM and 42.3 μM, respectively.
E0246 β-Anhydroicaritin β-Anhydroicaritin is isolated from Boswellia carterii Birdware, has antiosteoporosis, estrogen regulation and antitumor properties.
E0247 Militarine Militarine is a major chemical constituent of the tuber of Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb.f., with a prominent neuroprotective effect.
E0248 Rehmannioside D (Rhmannioside D) Rehmannioside D (Rhmannioside D) is an iridoid glycoside that has been found in Rehmannia glutinosa.
E0249 Pseudolaric Acid A Pseudolaric acid A, a Hsp90 inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.60 μM, 2.72 μM, 1.36 μM, 2.92 μM and 6.16 μM in HL-60, A549, SMMC-7721, HeLa and SW480 cells respectively, is the main bioactive ingredient in Pseudolarix cortex, and induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and promotes cell death through caspase-8/caspase-3 pathway, demonstrating potent antiproliferation and anticancer activities.
E0212 Cornuside Cornuside is a bisiridoid glucoside compound isolated from the fruit of Cornus officinalis SIEB. et ZUCC. Cornuside suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory mediators by inhibiting NF-κB activation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cornuside attenuates apoptosis in rat cortical neurons.
E0213 Bruceine D Bruceine D, isolated from Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. (Simaroubaceae), shows antineoplastic properties in various human cancers including pancreas, breast, lung, blood, bone, and liver. Bruceine D induces apoptosis in human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells via mitochondrial pathway.
E0215 Isorhapontigenin Isorhapontigenin (ISOR), isolated from Belamcanda chinensis, is a derivative of stilbene. Isorhapontigenin possessed potent antioxidative activity. Isorhapontigenin suppresses interleukin-1β-induced inflammation and cartilage matrix damage in rat chondrocytes.
E0216 Hinokiflavone Hinokiflavone, isolated from Selaginella P. Beauv, Juniperus phoenicea and Rhus succedanea, possesses excellent pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor activity. Hinokiflavone induces apoptosis and inhibits migration of breast cancer cells via EMT signalling pathway.
E0190 Invert sugar Invert Sugar is a popular sweetener.
E0211 Dihydroberberine Dihydroberberine, a hydrogenated derivative of Berberine (BBR), exerts anti-inflammatory effect via dual modulation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.
S0941 3,29-O-dibenzoyloxykarounidiol 3,29-O-dibenzoyloxykarounidiol is a triterpenoid isolated from Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim.
S5813 Isoginkgetin Isoginkgetin is a naturally derived biflavonoid with anti-tumor activity. Isoginkgetin directly inhibits the chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and caspase-like activities of the 20S proteasome. Isoginkgetin also is a general inhibitor of Pre-mRNA splicing.
S0958 Zingibroside R1 Zingibroside R1, isolated from rhizomes of Panax zingiberensis Wu et Feng (Araliaceae), has some anti-HIV-1 activity. Zingibroside R1 shows the inhibitory effects on the 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) uptake by EAT cells with IC50 of 91.3 µM and the growth of MT-4 cells with CC50 of 46.2 µM.
E0206 Ginkgetin Ginkgetin is a biflavone from Ginkgo biloba leaves with anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-adipogenic, and neuroprotective activities.
E0207 Chebulinic acid Chebulinic acid, a phenolic compound isolated from Terminalia chebula fruit, is a novel Influenza viral neuraminidase inhibitor. Chebulinic acid is a antiangiogenic agent through inhibiting the actions of VEGF. Chebulinic acid shows antitumour activity.
E0208 Herbacetin Herbacetin is a natural flavonoid compound found in flaxseed with strong antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory activity.
E0209 Cinobufotalin Cinobufotalin, extracted from the skin secretion of the giant toad, is a novel SREBP1 inhibitor that suppresses proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting lipogenesis.
E0210 Quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucuronide Quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucuronide (Miquelianin, Q3GA) is one of the quercetin metabolites with antioxidant activity.
E0222 Glaucocalyxin A Glaucocalyxin A is a biologically active ent-kauranoid diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx with antitumor and anti-inflammatory activity. Glaucocalyxin A induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt pathway in human bladder cancer cells.
E0225 Licochalcone B Licochalcone B (Lico B), extracted from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, induces the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma cell HepG2. Licochalcone B specifically inhibits the NLRP3 inflammasome by disrupting NEK7‐NLRP3 interaction.
E0226 Chebulagic acid Chebulagic acid, isolated form Terminalia chebula Retz, is a reversible and non-competitive inhibitor of maltase with a Ki value of 6.6 μM. Chebulagic acid shows potent anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Chebulagic acid also shows potent COX–LOX dual inhibition activity with IC50 values of 15 μM, 0.92 μM and 2.1 μM for COX-1, COX-2 and 5-LOX respectively.
E0233 14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide 14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (deAND), a diterpenoid in Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees with hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-asthma, and anti-cancer activities.
E0177 Hydrocortisone sodium succinate Hydrocortisone sodium succinate (Hydrocortisone 21-hemisuccinate sodium salt) has significant inhibitory effects on the IL-6 bioactivity with IC50 of 6.7 μM. Hydrocortisone sodium succinate can bind to glucocorticoid receptor, initiating the transcription of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive mediators.
E0201 Hypaconitine Hypaconitine (Hypaconitine) is an active diterpene alkaloid derived from Aconitum species. Hypaconitine inhibits TGF-β1-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition.
E0202 Benzoylmesaconine Benzoylmesaconine (Mesaconine 14-benzoate) is a main Aconitum alkaloid isolated from several Aconitum species with potent pharmacological activities, such as analgesia and anti-inflammation.
E0204 Poricoic acid A Poricoic acid A is isolated from the surface layer of Poria cocos. Poricoic acid A activates AMPK to attenuate fibroblast activation and abnormal extracellular matrix remodelling in renal fibrosis. Poricoic acid A also is a modulator of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH-1).
E0205 Strictosamide Strictosamide is the main representative constituent of Nauclea officinalis Pierre ex Pitard (Rubiaceae) with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.
S7758 Trabectedin

Trabectedin (Ecteinascidin 743, ET-743) is a marine alkaloid isolated from the Caribbean tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata with antitumour activity. Trabectedin binds to the N2 of guanine in the minor groove, causing DNA damage and affecting transcription regulation in a promoter- and gene-specific manner.

S0651 N-Butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone N-Butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (N-Butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, N-Butyrylhomoserine lactone, C4-HSL) is a cleavable ADC linker applied into the synthesis of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). N-Butyryl-L-homoserine lactone is a small diffusible signaling molecule involved in quorum sensing, controlling gene expression, and cellular metabolism.
E0160 Hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride

Hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride (5-Aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester hydrochloride) is a tumour photosensitizer.

E0365 Fucoidan

Fucoidan is an anionic sulfated polysaccharide extracted from marine brown algae with a large range of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-oxidation, anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-angiogenic and anti-Helicobacter pylori, etc.

S0920 Ginkgolide J Ginkgolide J is a minor constituent of terpene trilactone mixture of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract that inhibits GlyR-operated channels with IC50 of 2.0 μM. Ginkgolide J also inhibits cell death of rodent hippocampal neurons caused by Aβ1–42. Ginkgolide J exhibits anti‑inflammatory activity.
E0198 Pristane Pristane (2,6,10,14-Tetramethylpentadecane, TMPD) is a natural saturated terpenoid alkane obtained primarily from shark liver oil that is widely used to induce tumorgenesis in mice and arthritis and lupus nephritis in rats.
E1029 Miglustat Miglustat (Zavesca, N‐butyldeoxynojirimycin, OGT 918) is an orally administered ceramide glucosyltransferase inhibitor which prevents the lysosomal accumulation of glucocerebroside.
E0196 Alloxan Monohydrate

Alloxan Monohydrate is the most popular diabetogenic agents used for assessing the antidiabetic or hypoglycemic capacity of test compounds.

S9793 4-Hydroxynonenal

4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, HNE, 4-hydroxy Nonenal, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) is one of the major end products of lipid peroxidation and has been widely accepted as an inducer of oxidative stress.

E0150 Carrageenan Carrageenan (kappa-Carrageenan) is a natural carbohydrate (polysaccharide) obtained from edible red seaweeds. Carrageenan shows anticoagulant activity, antithrombotic activity, antiviral activity, anti-tumour activity and immunomodulatory activity.
E0149 Papain Papain (papaya proteinase I) is a sulfhydryl protease from the latex of the papaya fruit. Papain breaks down intercellular matrix of cartilage.
E0156 Thioacetamide Thioacetamide (TAA) is a hepatotoxin frequently used for experimental purposes which produces centrilobular necrosis after a single dose administration.
E0154 Taurocholic acid sodium salt Taurocholic acid sodium salt (Sodium Taurocholate, TANa) is a sodium salt of taurocholic acid and occurs in the bile of mammals. Taurocholic acid is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
E0143 ITE ITE (2-(1′H-indole-3′-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester) is a potent endogenous agonist of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) that directly binds to AHR with a Ki of 3 nM.
S6812 Z-Guggulsterone Z-Guggulsterone, a constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Z-Guggulsterone exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in microglia. Z-Guggulsterone induces apoptosis in gastric cancer cells through the intrinsic mitochondria-dependent pathway.
E0129 Oxysophocarpine Oxysophocarpine (OSC) is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora alopecuroides. Oxysophocarpine inhibits the growth and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) by targeting the Nrf2/HO-1 axis. OSC protects cells against apoptosis and inflammatory responses and compromised miR-155 activity by attenuating MAPK and NF-κB pathways.
E0130 Apigenin-7-O-glucuronide Apigenin-7-O-glucuronide (Apigenin-7-glucuronide) is the major flavonoid found in milk thistle. Apigenin 7-o-glucuronide inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and total nitrite release in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.
E0015 Iberiotoxin Iberiotoxin (IbTX) is a toxin purified from the scorpion Buthus tamulus. Iberiotoxin is a potent blocker of the large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel with a Kd of ~1 nM.
S0947 Cafestol Cafestol is a natural diterpenes extracted from coffee beans. Cafestol induces apoptosis and regulates a variety of inflammatory mediators to reduce inflammation. Cafestol inhibits PI3K/Akt pathway. Cafestol also can reduce the production of ROS in the leukemia cell line HL60.
E0023 5,7-Dihydroxychromone 5,7-Dihydroxychromone (DHC), a natural antioxidant extracted from plants, is a potent activator of Nrf2/ARE signal. 5,7-dihydroxychromone also is a potent activator of PPARγ and LXRα. 5,7-Dihydroxychromone may contributes to regulate blood glucose levels and shows anti-diabetic property.
E0046 β-Cyclodextrin β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD, Beta-Cyclodextrin) is a cyclic derivative of starch prepared from partially hydrolyzed starch (maltodextrin) by an enzymatic process. β-Cyclodextrin can be used as complexing agents to increase aqueous solubility of poorly soluble drugs and to increase their bioavailability and stability.
E0124 Chelerythrine Chelerythrine (Toddaline, Broussonpapyrine) is a potent, selective antagonist of PKC with an IC50 of 0.66 μM. Chelerythrine also inhibits the BclXL-Bak BH3 peptide binding with an IC50 of 1.5 μM. Chelerythrine shows antitumor, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activity.
S8152 Cucurbitacin I Cucurbitacin-I (Elatericin B, JSI 124, NSC 521777), a natural cell-permeable triterpenoid isolated from Cucurbitaceae, is a novel selective inhibitor of JAK2/STAT3.
S7580 Leptomycin B Leptomycin B (LMB, CI 940, Elactocin, Mantuamycin, NSC 364372) is a potent antifungal antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces and acts as a specific inhibitor of the nuclear export factor CRM1. Leptomycin B rapidly induces cytotoxic effects in cancer cell lines via covalent inhibition of CRM1 with IC50 values of 0.1 nM–10 nM.
E0037 Bradykinin Bradykinin is a potent vasodilator peptide that exerts its vasodilatory action through stimulation of specific endothelial B2 receptors, thereby causing the release of prostacyclin, NO, and EDHF.
S0950 Hibifolin Hibifolin (Gossypetin-8-O-β-D-glucuronide) is a flavonol glycoside and acts as a potential inhibitor of adenosine deaminase (ADA) with a Ki of 49.92 μM. Hibifolin prevents β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in cultured cortical neurons.
E0010 Hypocrellin A Hypocrellin A (HA) is a perylenequinone isolated from Shiraia bambusicola that shows antiviral, antimicrobial and anticancer activity through mediating multiple signaling pathways. Hypocrellin A also is a selective and potent inhibitor of PKC.
E0027 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a naturally existing component in mammalian genomic DNA and is regarded as the sixth DNA base. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine is an intermediate metabolite in active DNA demethylation. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine is epigenetic marks known to affect global gene expression in mammals.
E0025 2-Hydroxybenzylamine 2-Hydroxybenzylamine (2-(Aminomethyl)phenol, 2-HOBA, NSC 127870) is a naturally occurring compound found in buckwheat and is a selective scavenger of dicarbonyl electrophiles that protects proteins and lipids from being modified by these electrophiles. 2-HOBA reduces inflammation and plaque apoptotic cells and promotes efferocytosis and features of stable plaques. 2-HOBA has potential for use as a nutrition supplement due to its ability to protect against the damaging effects of oxidative stress.
E0008 Atractylodin Atractylodin (Atractydin) is one of the major constituents of the rhizome of Atractylodes lancea and inhibits N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) activity with an IC50 of 2.81 µM. Atractylodin also inhibits interleukin-6 (IL-6) by blocking NPM-ALK activation and MAPKs.
E0009 Harmane Harmane (Harman, Aribine, Aribin, Locuturine, Locuturin, Loturine, Passiflorin, 1-Methylnorharman, NSC 54439) is a common compound in several foods, plants and beverages. Harmane is a selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors with IC50s of 0.5 μM and 5 μM for human MAO A and MAO B, respectively. Harmane also inhibits the apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease activity of the UV endonuclease induced by phage T4.
E0022 Ophiopogonin D Ophiopogonin D (OJV-VI, Deacetylophiopogonin C) is a steroidal glycoside isolated from Chinese herb Radix ophiopogonis and shows anti-tumor property. Ophiopogonin D could suppress TGF-β1-mediated metastatic behavior of MDA-MB-231 cells by regulating ITGB1/FAK/Src/AKT/β-catenin/MMP-9 signaling axis. Ophiopogonin D attenuates PM2.5-induced inflammation via suppressing the AMPK/NF-κB pathway in mouse pulmonary epithelial cells.
S9197 Maltohexaose Maltohexaose (Amylohexaose) is a polysaccharide with 6 units of glucose and can be classified as a maltodextrin.
S0943 Arenobufagin Arenobufagin is a natural bufadienolide from toad venom and induces apoptosis and autophagy in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells through inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.
S6909 Levomefolic acid Levomefolic acid (5-MTHF, LMSR, Metafolin, Nutrifolin) is a natural, active form of folic acid used at the cellular level for DNA reproduction, the cysteine cycle and the regulation of homocysteine among other functions.
S6927 Dihydroresveratrol Dihydroresveratrol is a natural product possessing significant biological activities. Dihydroresveratrol, a potent phytoestrogen, is a hormone receptor modulator.
S3166 Calcium 2-oxoglutarate Calcium 2-oxoglutarate (Calcium oxoglurate, Calcium 2-oxopentanedioate, Calcium α-ketoglutarate, Calcium AKG, Calcium 2-ketoglutaric acid, Calcium oxoglutaric acid) is the Calcium salt form of 2-oxoglutarate. 2-oxoglutarate is naturally found in organisms and is a well-known intermediate in the production of ATP or GTP in the Krebs cycle. 2-oxoglutarate is a reversible inhibitor of tyrosinase with IC50 of 15 mM.
S6100 Picrotoxin Picrotoxin (Picrotin, Cocculin, Cocculus, NSC 403139), a plant alkaloid, is a non-competitive antagonist of neuronal GABA and glycine receptors.
S5910 Alpha-Estradiol Alpha-Estradiol (α-Estradiol, 17 alpha-Estradiol, Alfatradiol, Epiestradiol, Epiestrol, Alora, 17 α-E2), a natural, non-feminizing stereoisomer, a hormonally almost inactive isomer of physiological 17 beta-estradiol (17 β-E2), is a weak inhibitor of estrogen.
S3761 Eucalyptol Eucalyptol (NSC 6171, 1,8-Cineol, 1,8-cineole, 1,8-Epoxy-p-menthane, 1,8-Oxido-p-menthane, Cineol, Cineole) is a monoterpenoid oil present in many plants, principally the Eucalyptus species, and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. Eucalyptol controls airway mucus hypersecretion and asthma via anti-inflammatory cytokine inhibition.
S5417 Spectinomycin dihydrochloride pentahydrate Spectinomycin dihydrochloride pentahydrate (Trobicin) is a widely used antibiotic that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by blocking translocation of messenger RNA and transfer RNAs on the ribosome.
S5972 Hydrocortisone hemisuccinate Hydrocortisone hemisuccinate (A-hydrocort, Hydrocortisone 21-hemisuccinate), a physiological glucocorticoid with anti-inflammatory properties, is an inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokine with IC50 of 6.7 μM and 21.4 μM for Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-3, respectively.
S9827 Iodoacetamide Iodoacetamide (IA, IAM, 2-Iodoacetamide) is an alkylating agent that is commonly used for alkylation of cysteine during sample preparation for proteomics.
S5958 Metformin Metformin (1,1-Dimethylbiguanide), a widely used drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes, activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in hepatocytes. Metformin promotes mitophagy in mononuclear cells. Metformin induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells through activating JNK/p38 MAPK pathway and GADD153.
S5937 DL-Carnitine DL-Carnitine ((±)-Carnitin) is a racemic mixture of L-Carnitine and D-Carnitine that regulates fatty acid transport in the mitochondrion. DL-carnitine is found to be ineffective or toxic, for example, to muscle cells and to the myocardium. DL-Carnitine causes symptoms of myasthenia and cardiac arrhythmias.
S5955 Thiamine nitrate Thiamine (Vitamin B1) nitrate is an essential vitamin that plays an important role in cellular production of energy from ingested food and enhances normal neuronal actives.
S5888 Beclamide Beclamide (N-Benzyl-3-chloropropionamide, beta-chlorpropionamide) exhibits sedative and anticonvulsant properties.
S5199 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride Oxytetracycline (OTC, Oxycycin, Stevacin, Terramycin) hydrochloride is a prescription antibiotic, interfering with the ability of bacteria to produce essential proteins.
S4486 Thiamine monochloride Thiamine (Vitamin B1) monochloride is an essential vitamin that plays an important role in cellular production of energy from ingested food and enhances normal neuronal actives.
S4495 Quinine Quinine, an alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree, is an anti-malaria agent and a potassium channel inhibitor that inhibits mSlo3 (KCa 5.1) channel currents evoked by voltage pulses to +100 mV with IC50 of 169 μM.
S4490 Tetracycline Tetracycline (TC) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that exhibits activity against a wide range of microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, chlamydiae, mycoplasmas, rickettsiae, and protozoan parasites.
S3590 Triolein Triolein is an inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and reduces both the expression of IL-6 and ROS generation in irradiated keratinocytes.
S4713 Atropine Atropine (Atropen, Atnaa, Tropine tropate, DL-Hyoscyamine) is a competitive muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist with anti-myopia effect.
S5193 L-Thyroxine sodium salt pentahydrate L-Thyroxine (Levothyroxine, L-T4) sodium salt pentahydrate is a synthetic T4 hormone used to counterbalance hypothyroidism.
S5260 ATP ATP (Adenosine-Triphosphate, Adenosine 5'-triphosphate) is a multifunctional nucleoside triphosphate and an important endogenous signaling molecule in immunity and inflammation.
S5790 Folinic acid Folinic acid (Leucovorin) is a biological folic acid that increases the level of reduced folates in tissues, which promotes the inhibition of thymidylate synthase (TS).
S6466 Eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester Eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (AMR101, EPA ethyl ester, Ethyl eicosapentaenoate) is an omega-3 fatty acid agent that significantly reduces the triglyceride (TG) levels and improves other lipid parameters without significantly increasing the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels.
S4979 Procaine penicillin G Penicillin G Procaine (PGP, Penicillin G Procaine, Bicillin C-R), a crystalline complex combining penicillin G with procaine, is a β-lactam antibiotic.
S5922 L-Carnitine hydrochloride L-Carnitine ((R)-Carnitine, Levocarnitine) hydrochloride improves oxygen saturation, and inhibits leukotriene synthesis. L-Carnitine hydrochloride functions to transport long chain fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria for degradation by β-oxidation.
S0911 Hypaphorine Hypaphorine, an indole alkaloid isolated from Pisolithus tinctorius, exhibits neurological and glucose-lowering effects in rodents.
S4857 L-Ornithine L-ornithine ((S)-2,5-Diaminopentanoic acid) has an antifatigue effect by increasing the efficiency of energy consumption and promoting the excretion of ammonia. It is one of the key reactants in the urea cycle.
S3578 Pyrroloquinoline quinone Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ, Methoxatin) is a natural anti-oxidant with anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. Pyrroloquinoline quinone prevents estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis.
S4496 Maltose monohydrate Maltose (Maltobiose, Malt Sugar, Beta-Maltose, D-Maltose) monohydrate, an non-essential nutrient that provides energy, is an intermediate in the intestinal digestion of glycogen and starch, and is found in germinating grains (and other plants and vegetables).
S9631 Puromycin aminonucleoside Puromycin aminonucleoside (NSC 3056, PAN, Stylomycin aminonucleoside, ARDMA, SAN), the aminonucleoside portion of the antibiotic puromycin, is a reversible inhibitor of dipeptidyl-peptidase II and cytosol alanyl aminopeptidase that induces apoptosis in mesangial cells (MCs) accompanied by declined cell viability and enhanced inflammatory response.
S7428 Rocaglamide Rocaglamide (Roc-A), isolated from Aglaia species, is a potent inhibitor of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) activation with IC50 of ~50 nM for HSF1. Rocaglamide inhibits the function of the translation initiation factor eIF4A. Rocaglamide also inhibits NF-κB activity. Rocaglamide exhibits anti-tumor activity.
S3569 Spermidine Spermidine is a natural polyamine that stimulates cytoprotective macroautophagy/autophagy.
S4438 Benzophenone Benzophenone (Diphenyl ketone, Benzoylbenzene) filters out both UVA and UVB rays and is widely used in a great variety of sunscreens and personal care products.
S4440 2-Phenylacetamide 2-Phenylacetamide, the main compound isolated from the seeds of Lepidium apetalum Willd (LA) with estrogenic activities, increases the expression of Estrogen receptorα (ERα), ERβ and GPR30 in the uterus and MCF-7 cells.
S4425 Rifamycin S Rifamycin S, a quinone and an antibiotic against Gram-positive bacteria (including MRSA), is a clinical drug used to treat tuberculosis and leprosy. Rifamycin S generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibits microsomal lipid peroxidation.
S4436 Pleuromutilin Pleuromutilin (Drosophilin B, Mutilin 14-glycolate), the lead compound for novel antibiotics, inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit of bacteria.
S4494 Methionine Methionine (MRX-1024, D-Methionine) is an activitor of GABAA receptor that modulates neuronal activity.
S3588 Hexylene glycol Hexylene glycol (HG, 2-Methyl-2,4-pentanediol, MPD) is an oxygenated solvent derived from acetone that has been used widely in industrial chemicals and cosmetics. Hexylene glycol exhibits antibacterial and antifungal properties.
S3595 D-Gluconic acid D-Gluconic acid is an antifungal agent.
S6446 Sodium citrate dihydrate Sodium citrate dehydrate (Trisodium citrate dihydrate, Citric acid trisodium salt dihydrate) is the preferred anticoagulant.
S3594 Adipic acid Adipic acid (Hexanedioic acid) is an important dicarboxylic acid used for the manufacture of nylon and polyurethane plastics.
S3596 Polyvinylpyrrolidone Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, Polyvidone, Povidone) is an inert, water-soluble, non-toxic, temperature-resistant, pH-stable, biocompatible, biodegradable polymer that helps to encapsulate and cater both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs. Polyvinylpyrrolidone has been widely tested and used as an effective wound healing accelerator.
S3598 Sucrose Sucrose (D-(+)-Saccharose), a common sugar produced naturally in plants, is a disaccharide, a molecule composed of two monosaccharides:glucose and fructose.
S4424 Hyaluronidase Hyaluronidase (Hyaluronate 4-glycanohydrolase, Hyaluronoglucosaminidase, Amphadase, Hydase, Vitrase) is a naturally occurring enzyme that degrades hyaluronic acid, which constitutes an essential part of the extracellular matrix.
S0235 Lavendustin B Lavendustin B inhibits HIV-1 integrase (IN) interaction with its cognate cellular cofactor lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75). Lavendustin B is an inhibitor of Tyrosine Kinase and also a competitive inhibitor of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1).
S9794 Melittin Melittin (MLT, Forapin, Forapine) is an activator of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) that stimulates the activity of the low molecular weight PLA2, while it does not the increase the activity of the high molecular weight enzyme.
S3168 cis-Resveratrol cis-Resveratrol (cis-RESV, cRes, (Z)-Resveratrol) is the Cis isomer of Resveratrol. Resveratrol is a natural phenolic compound with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and anti-cancer properties. Resveratrol is an inhibitor of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and an activator of Nrf2 and SIRT1 and may induce apoptosis. Resveratrol also inhibits a wide spectrum of targets including 5-lipoxygenase (LOX), cyclooxygenase (COX), IKKβ, DNA polymerases α and δ with IC50 of 2.7 μM, <1 μM, 1 μM, 3.3 μM and 5 μM, respectively.
S3499 Monocaprylin Monocaprylin (2,3-dihydroxypropyl octanoate, Monoctanoin, 1-Octanoyl-rac-glycerol, MC) exhibits an excellent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
S0921 Wilforine Wilforine (WR), a sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloid found in T. wilfordii plants, significantly inhibits the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp).
S3351 Sodium phenylpyruvate Sodium phenylpyruvate (Phenylpyruvic acid sodium salt) inhibits amino acid formation and depresses oxygen consumption.
S2995 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid (4-HPPA), an abundant colon metabolite of polyphenols, is a potent scavenger that suppresses levels of free radicals and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and contributes to reduced risk of colon cancer development.
S6918 Oleandrin (PBI-05204) Oleandrin (PBI-05204, Foliandrin, Neriolin, Neriostene, Folinerin, Corrigen, Neriol) is an inhibitor of Na+/K+-ATPase with IC50 of 0.62 μM. Oleandrin induces apoptosis and reduces migration of human glioma cells in vitro.
S6990 Phytohemagglutinin

Phytohemagglutinin (PHA, Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin) is expressed in Pichia pastoris using native signal peptides, or the Saccharomyces alpha-factor preprosequence, to direct proteins into the secretory pathway. Phytohemagglutinin induces apoptosis in human HEp-2 carcinoma cells via increasing proapoptotic protein Bax and activating caspases-3.

P1201 LL37 (Human cathelicidin) LL37 (Human cathelicidin, Ropocamptide) is a cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide with potent chemotactic and immunomodulatory properties.
S3069 Deoxycholic acid sodium salt

Deoxycholic acid sodium salt (Sodium Deoxycholate, Sodium Desoxycholate, Cholanoic Acid, ATX-101, Kythera, Belkyra, DCA) is specifically responsible for activating the TGR5 receptor (GPCR19) that stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity.

S3248 2'-Deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphate

2'-Deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-dAMP), an endogenous metabolite, is only photosensitized degraded under acidic conditions.

S3268 2'-Deoxycytidine 5'-monophosphate

2'-Deoxycytidine-5'-monophosphoric acid (dCMP) is an endogenous metabolite that can be used as a model to describe mechanisms of DNA-strand breaks induced by secondary electrons and decomposes primarily by dissociation of the C-O phosphoester bond.

S3318 N-Acetyl-L-arginine dihydrate

N-Acetyl-L-arginine (Ac-Arg-OH) dihydrate is an endogenous metabolite.

S3319 Levoglucosan

Levoglucosan (LG, LEV, Leucoglucosan, Glucosan, 1,6-anhydro-b-D-Glucose) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3324 Sodium 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)acetate

Sodium 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)acetate (3-Indoleacetic acid sodium, Indole-3-acetic acid sodium, 3-IAA sodium) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3326 Phytic acid dipotassium salt

Phytic acid dipotassium salt (Phytic acid potassium, IP6 (PS)), an endogenous metabolite in rice grain extract and digest, inhibits β-secretase 1 (BACE1) with IC50 of approximately 0.25 μM.

S3331 2-Aminoethylphosphonic acid

2-Aminoethylphosphonic acid (2-AEP, (2-Aminoethyl)phosphonic acid) is a type of abundant and ubiquitous naturally occurring phosphonate used as sources of phosphorus by many prokaryotic lineages.

S3335 Phospho(enol)pyruvic acid monopotassium salt

Phospho(enol)pyruvic acid monopotassium salt (Potassium 1-carboxyvinyl hydrogenphosphate) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3343 Methyl β-D-Galactopyranoside

Methyl β-D-Galactopyranoside (Methyl beta-D-galactoside, Methylgalactoside) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3370 3-Methoxytyramine hydrochloride

3-Methoxytyramine (3-O-methyl Dopamine, 3MT) hydrochloride, a major extracellular metabolite of dopamine, is a neuromodulator that in certain situations may be involved in movement control.

S3310 D-(+)-Galacturonic acid monohydrate

D-(+)-Galacturonic acid monohydrate (D-Galacturonic acid hydrate, d-GalA, D-galUA) is an endogenous metabolite that can be used in engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

S3323 2-Hydroxycaproic acid

2-Hydroxyhexanoic acid (2-Hydroxyhexanoic acid) is an endogenous metabolite.

S2997 DL-Tartaric acid

DL-Tartaric Acid (2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid) is a white, crystalline organic acid isolated from many plants, particularly tamarinds and grapes and is used as an antioxidant and an additive agent to give a sour taste.

S3087 N-Acetyl-DL-methionine

N-Acetyl-DL-methionine is an active endogenous metabolite that decreases the hepatic glutathione level in male Bom:NMRI mice.

S3092 Glyoxylic acid monohydrate

Glyoxylic acid monohydrate (2,2-Dihydroxyacetic acid) is an atmospherically relevant ketoacid.

S3093 Pyrazole

Pyrazole (1H-pyrazole) is a five membered heteroaromatic ring with two nitrogen atoms is of immense significance. Pyrazole is an indispensable anchor for design and development of new pharmacological agents.

S3094 N-Acetyl-L-alanine

N-Acetyl-L-alanine (NAAL, Ac-Ala-OH) is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3157 3-Hydroxybenzaldehyde

3-Hydroxybenzaldehyde (3-HBA), one of the benzaldehydes commonly found in nature, is produced by 3-hydroxybenzyl-alcohol dehydrogenase, and is a substrate of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in rats and humans (ALDH2). 3-Hydroxybenzaldehyde exhibits vasculoprotective effects.

S3315 6-Hydroxyindole

6-Hydroxyindole (1H-indol-6-ol) is an endogenous potent and long-lasting OATP1B1 inhibitor with IC50 of ~10 μM.

S3334 Glycolaldehyde dimer

Glycolaldehyde dimer (2,5-Dihydroxy-1,4-dioxane, 1,4-Dioxane-2,5-diol, DD) is an active endogenous metabolite that appears moderate absorbent and fluorescent, when it reacts with glycine (Gly)/ammonium sulfate (AS).

S3336 Heptadecanoic acid

Heptadecanoic acid (C17:0), an odd chain saturated fatty acid, significantly inhibits cell proliferation, and migration, while promoting apoptosis in PC‑9 and PC‑9/GR cells. Heptadecanoic acid is associated with several diseases, including the incidence of coronary heart disease, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes as well as multiple sclerosis.

S3337 L-Histidinol dihydrochloride

L-Histidinol dihydrochloride, a structural analogue of the essential amino acid L-histidine, is a reversible inhibitor of protein biosynthesis which evokes disparate responses from non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic cells in culture.

S3338 D-(-)-Lyxose

D-(-)-Lyxose (D-Lyxose) is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3345 Nα-Acetyl-L-lysine

Nα-Acetyl-L-lysine (Ac-Lys-OH, N(alpha)-Acetyllysine) is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3347 3-Methylglutaric acid

3-Methylglutaric acid (MGA, 3MG acid) is a conspicuous C6 dicarboxylic organic acid that can be used as a single solid-state NMR standard compound to perform all calibration steps except for magnet shimming.

S3348 O-Acetyl-L-serine hydrochloride

O-Acetyl-L-serine (OAS, O-Acetylserine, O-Acetyl-L-serine) hydrochloride (HCl) is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the amino acid cysteine in bacteria and plants that displays a signalling function leading to changes in transcript levels of a specific gene set irrespective of the sulfur status of the plant.

S3358 4-Acetamidobutyric acid

4-Acetamidobutanoic acid (N-acetyl GABA) is a derivative of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) resulting from the monoacetylation of the nitrogen of GABA.

S3360 Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (Dioctyl phthalate, DOP, Diplast O, ESBO-D 82, Ergoplast FDO, Ergoplast FDO-S, Etalon) induces DNA strand breaks and gene expression alterations in larval zebrafish Danio rerio.

S3095 Itaconic acid

Itaconic acid, a macrophage-specific (Mϕ-specific) metabolite, mediates crosstalk between macrophage metabolism and peritoneal tumors. Itaconic acid is also a precursor of polymers, chemicals, and fuels that can be synthesized by many fungi.

S3096 L-Histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate

L-Histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate (L-Histidine hydrochloride hydrate, H-His-OH.HCl.H2O), a structural analogue of the essential amino acid L-histidine, is a reversible inhibitor of protein biosynthesis which evokes disparate responses from non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic cells in culture.

S3098 N-Acetylglycine

N-Acetylglycine (NAGly, Aceturic acid, Acetamidoacetic acid), a minor constituent of numerous foods, is not genotoxic or acutely toxic.

S3097 5,6-Dimethylbenzimidazole

5,6-Dimethylbenzimidazole (5,6-DMB, Dimezol, Dimedazol, 5,6-Dimethyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole, 5,6-Dimethyl-1H-benzimidazole) is a vitamin B12 precursor.

S3107 D-Pyroglutamic acid

D-Pyroglutamic acid (D-5-Oxoproline, D-Pyr-OH, 5-oxo-D-proline, (R)-5-Oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid) is an active endogenous metabolite that antagonizes the disruption of passive avoidance behaviour induced by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist AP-5.

S3109 N-Acetyl-L-leucine

N-acetyl-L-leucine is an active endogenous metabolite that accelerates vestibular compensation after unilateral labyrinthectomy by action in the cerebellum and thalamus.

S3111 Pyridoxal hydrochloride

Pyridoxal hydrochloride (HQ) is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3365 (S)-(-)-1-Phenylethanol

(S)-(-)-1-Phenylethanol ((S)-1-Phenylethanol, (S)-(-)-Phenylethanol) is an enantiomer of 1-Phenylethanol with flavor properties.

S3366 Monoethyl malonic acid

Monoethyl malonic acid (Ethyl hydrogen malonate, Monoethyl malonate, 3-Ethoxy-3-oxopropanoic acid) is the major urinary metabolites of ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate (EEP).

S3320 (R)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid

(R)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid (R-3HB, D-3-hydroxybutyric acid) is a monomer of PHB (poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]) with wide industrial and medical applications. (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid can also serve as chiral precursor for synthesis of pure biodegradable PHB and its copolyesters.

S3049 Calcium 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoate

Calcium 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoate is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3135 2-Amino-1-phenylethanol

2-Amino-1-phenylethanol (2-APE) is a noradrenaline analogue.

S3221 Thymidine 5'-monophosphate disodium salt

Thymidine-5'-monophosphate (5'-Thymidylic acid) disodium salt is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3311 Myosmine

Myosmine is not only one of the minor tobacco alkaloids but is also present in various foods. Myosmine has low affinity against a4b2 nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptors (nAChR) with Ki of 3300 nM.

S3321 N-Methylnicotinamide

N-Methylnicotinamide (MNA, Nicotinyl Methylamide, N-Methyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide) is an active endogenous metabolite that improves endothelial dysfunction and attenuates atherogenesis via the modulation of ADMA-DDAH axis.

S3325 L-Cysteic acid monohydrate

L-Cysteic acid monohydrate (CAM) is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3329 (L)-Dehydroascorbic acid

(L)-Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) is an oxidized form of l-Ascorbic acid (AsA) that efficiently scavenges non-thermal plasma-induced hydroxyl radicals in the presence of thiols and fails to scavenge hydroxyl radicals by itself.

S3342 Petroselinic acid

Petroselinic acid (PSA) is a positional isomer of oleic acid isolated from the vegetable oil of Coriandrum sativum fruits. Petroselinic acid can be used for the fermentation of new sophorolipids.

S3344 Serotonin creatinine sulfate monohydrate

Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine) creatinine sulfate monohydrate is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3346 1-Methylnicotinamide chloride

1-Methylnicotinamide (1-MNA, 3-Carbamoyl-1-methylpyridin-1-ium, Trigonellamide) chloride is an active endogenous metabolite of nicotinamide that exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic activities. 1-Methylnicotinamide enhances tumor vasculature formation and markedly increases prostacyclin (PGI2) generation.

S3349 Phosphocholine chloride calcium salt tetrahydrate

Phosphocholine (Phosphorylcholine) chloride calcium salt tetrahydrate is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3350 Cholesteryl linoleate

Cholesteryl linoleate is less polar lipid in human nasal fluid that contributes to the inherent antibacterial activity.

S3352 Tricosanoic acid

Tricosanoic acid is an aliphatic carboxylic acid that exhibits a strong hair-growing effect.

S3353 Lithium acetoacetate Lithium acetoacetate (LiAcAc, Acetoacetic acid lithium salt, Lithium 3-oxobutanoate) is an active endogenous metabolite that affects the growth of cells. Lithium acetoacetate can be used as an acetoacetate standard for the measurement of acetoacetate in biological samples.
S3354 DL-2,3-Diaminopropionic acid monohydrochloride

DL-2,3-Diaminopropionic acid monohydrochloride (2,3-Diaminopropanoic acid hydrochloride) is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3355 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid

3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid (3-HAA, 3-HANA), a tryptophan metabolite, has an immunomodulatory effect that may result from inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and NF-κB activity, thereby decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators.

S3356 Phosphonoacetic acid

Phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) is an active endogenous metabolite that possesses a restricted potential to block DNA biosynthesis. Phosphonoacetic acid exhibits anti-viral activities.

S3357 Elaidic acid

Elaidic acid is a major trans fatty acid that inhibits cell viability, elevates cell apoptosis by enhancing oxidative stress. Elaidic acid can be used as a pharmaceutical solvent.

S3359 Isomaltulose hydrate

Isomaltulose (Palatinose) hydrate is a disaccharide carbohydrate widely used during exercise to maintain glycaemia and hydration.

S3361 (3-Carboxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride

(3-Carboxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (γ-Butyrobetaine, γBB hydrochloride) is an intermediary metabolite by gut microbes from dietary L-carnitine in mice.

S3362 D-Gulonic acid γ-lactone D-Gulonic acid γ-lactone (Gulonolactone, D-Gulono-1,4-lactone, 1,4-D-Gulonolactone) is an active endogenous metabolite.
S3363 DL-Mandelic acid

DL-Mandelic acid (MA, 2-Hydroxy-2-phenylacetic acid, Amygdalic acid, Almond acid) can be intercalated into Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) by an anion-exchange reaction to build a novel antimicrobial layered material.

S3367 cis-4-Hydroxy-D-proline

cis-4-Hydroxy-D-proline (H-D-cis-Hyp-OH) is an endogenous metabolite that can be used to study the specificity and kinetics of D-alanine dehydrogenase.

S3368 Uridine-5'-diphosphate disodium salt

Uridine-5'-diphosphate (UDP) disodium salt is a potent, selective and natural agonist of P2Y6 receptor with EC50 = 300 nM and pEC50 of 6.52, respectively. Uridine-5'-diphosphate (UDP) disodium salt is also an antagonist of P2Y14 receptor with pEC50 of 7.28.

S3371 N-Acetyl-D-mannosamine

N-Acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc, N-acetyl-beta-mannosamine), a precursor of a sialic acid, improves the age-dependent attenuation of synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP). N-Acetyl-D-mannosamine treatment is a potential therapeutic application for cognitive dysfunction.

S3088 (±)-Methyl Jasmonate

(±)-Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA, Methyl jasmonate, Methyl 2-(3-oxo-2-(pent-2-en-1-yl)cyclopentyl)acetate), a phytohormone that acts as a vital cell regulator in plants, is a new candidate for the treatment of Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), modulating the expression of the major classes of caspase-type protease families.

S3169 2'-Deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate disodium salt

2'-Deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate disodium salt (dUMP) is a substrate for thymidylate synthase and is converted to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP). The inhibition of dUMP to dTMP at the methylation step is a key in controlling bacterial and eukaryotic cell growth.

S3322 Nicotinuric acid

Nicotinuric acid (NUA) is the major detoxification product of nicotinic acid and may serve as a simple quantitative index of hepatic biotransformation of nicotinic acid.

S3332 D-Mannosamine hydrochloride

D-Mannosamine hydrochloride ((2S,3R,4S,5R)-2-Amino-3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyhexanal hydrochloride) is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3364 3-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid

3-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3-HPAA) is a phenolic acid mostly found in olive oil wastewater and an intestinal metabolite of the dietary flavonoid quercetin. 3-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid exhibits antimicrobial properties.

S3040 Isocitric acid trisodium salt

Isocitric acid (DL-Isocitric acid) trisodium salt is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3089 12-Hydroxydodecanoic acid

12-Hydroxydodecanoic acid (G12) is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3341 Palmitoleic acid

Palmitoleic acid (POA, Palmitoleate) stimulates the uptake of glucose in liver through activation of AMPK and FGF-21, dependent on PPARα.

S2989 Nα-Acetyl-L-asparagine

Nα-Acetyl-L-asparagine (N-Acetylasparagine, (S)-2-acetamido-4-amino-4-oxobutanoic acid) is an endogenous metabolite that exists in human brain.

S2991 Thiamine monophosphate chloride dihydrate

Thiamine monophosphate chloride dihydrate (Vitamin B1 Monophosphate Chloride, Sineurina, Phosphothiamine) is an endogenous metabolite.

S2992 Sodium mesoxalate monohydrate

Sodium mesoxalate monohydrate (sodium 2,2-dihydroxymalonate) is an endogenous metabolite.

S2993 D-Saccharic acid potassium salt

D-Saccharic acid potassium salt (D-Glucaric acid potassium, Potassium bisaccharate) is an endogenous metabolite.

S2999 Acetic acid octyl ester

Acetic acid octyl ester (Octyl acetate) is one of the major components of essential oils in the vittae, or oil tubes, of the wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa). Acetic acid octyl ester exhibits antioxidant activity.

S3006 Methyl isoeugenol

Methyl isoeugenol (Methylisoeugenol) is an eugenol analogue isoeugenol isolated from Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma. Methyl isoeugenol is a highly attractive lure for Z. diversus and would be a valuable inclusion as an attractant in monitoring and male annihilation programs.

S3009 Menthone

Menthone is one of the main volatile components of the essential oil of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Menthone is used as antioxidant agent and has a good compensatory effect with significant reduction in DNA damages in sperm cells.

S3091 Methyl acetoacetate

Methyl acetylacetate (MAA, Acetoacetate methyl ester, Methyl 3-oxobutanoate, Methyl 3-oxobutyrate, Methyl acetoacetate, Methyl acetylacetate), an endogenous metabolite, is used as a chemical reagent used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals.

S2998 Isophorone

Isophorone (IPHO), an α,β-unsaturated cyclic ketone, is a clear liquid with a camphor-like odor. Isophorone is used as a precursor to polymers.

S3313 Nudifloric Acid

Nudifloric acid (1-Methyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylic acid), isolated from Cordyceps bassiana, which is one of Cordyceps species with anti-oxidative, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-angiogenic, and anti-nociceptive activities.

S3317 cis-3-Hexenyl hexanoate

Cis-3-Hexenyl hexanoate ((Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate) is a kind of plant volatile that brings tropical and pulpy profile with citrus and green nuances to all kinds of fruit flavors.

S3327 Disodium 5'-inosinate monohydrate

Disodium 5'-inosinate monohydrate (Inosine 5'-monophosphate disodium salt hydrate) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3333 (2R,3R)-(-)-2,3-Butanediol

(2R,3R)-(-)-2,3-Butanediol ((2R,3R)-Butane-2,3-diol) is an endogenous metabolite.

S2990 Dihydroxyfumaric acid hydrate

Dihydroxyfumaric acid hydrate (DHF) is an endogenous metabolite. The diester derivative of dihydroxyfumaric acid hydrate (DHF) has been used exclusively as an electrophile in organic synthesis.

S2988 DL-5-Hydroxylysine hydrochloride

DL-5-Hydroxylysine hydrochloride, an endogenous metabolite, is a racemic mixture of D- and L- enantiomers of 5-hydroxylysine which may be used as potential target markers for radical-induced protein oxidation.

S2994 DL-Homocysteine

DL-Homocysteine is a weak neurotoxin that affects the production of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the brain. DL-Homocysteine inhibits the activity of both KYNA biosynthetic enzymes, kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs) I and II.

S3099 δ-Valerolactone

δ-Valerolactone (Tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one, 5-Valerolactone, oxan-2-one) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3328 N-Formyl-L-methionine

N-Formyl-L-methionine (For-Met-OH) is an endogenous metabolite.

S6955 Insulin (human) Insulin (human) (Insulin regular) is a polypeptide hormone that regulates the level of glucose. Insulin is commonly used to treat hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes. Potency: 29 units/mg.
S2986 9-Methoxycanthin-6-one

9-Methoxycanthin-6-one is present in intact plant parts and in callus tissues of different explants with anti-tumour activity.

S3108 2,5-Dimethylpyrazine

2,5-Dimethylpyrazine (NSC 49139) is an endogenous metabolite.

S2996 L-DAB HBR

L-DAB HBR (L-Dab Hydrobromide, L-2,4-Diaminobutyric acid hydrobromide) is an inhibitor of GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid) transaminase with IC50 of >500 μM. L-DAB HBR exhibits antitumor activity.

S3029 Malonic acid

Malonic acid (MOA), one of the major dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) in aerosols, has been identified experimentally and computationally to be a strong acid. Malonic acid (MOA) acts as a mediate bridge for the formation of pure SA-A-based clusters.

S3086 Maleic acid

Maleic acid inhibits glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity, thus enhances acid sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes. Maleic acid affects the extracellular GABA levels.

S3090 trans-Aconitic acid

trans-Aconitic acid (TAA) is an abundant constituent in the leaves of Echinodorus grandiflorus, a medicinal plant used to treat rheumatoid arthritis in Brazil.

S3101 2-Deoxy-D-ribose

2-Deoxy-D-ribose (Thyminose, Deoxyribose) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3118 L-Homoserine

L-Homoserine (L-Hse) is an important biosynthetic intermediate of threonine, methionine and lysine.

S3123 3-Methyl-2-buten-1-ol

3-Methyl-2-buten-1-ol (Prenol, Prenyl alcohol, Dimethylallyl alcohol) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3143 Pyruvic acid

Pyruvic acid (Acetylformic acid) is an important organic chemical intermediate that plays a role in cardiomyocyte pathophysiology and therapy. Pyruvic acid markedly increases the level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) and reduces the level of Ca2+Mg2+-ATPase and Na+K+-ATPase.

S3084 Guanosine 5'-triphosphate trisodium salt

Guanosine 5'-triphosphate (5'-GTP, Guanosine triphosphate, H4GTP) trisodium salt is an enhancer of myogenic cell differentiation in a murine cells. Guanosine 5'-triphosphate trisodium salt up-regulates miRNA (specifically miR133a and miR133b) and myogenic regulator factor and induces human myogenic precursor cells to release exosomes stuffed with guanosine based molecules (mainly guanosine) in the extracellular milieu.

S3125 N-Formylglycine

N-Formylglycine (2-formamidoacetic acid, For-Gly-OH, FGly) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3126 Sodium 2-hydroxybutanoate

Sodium 2-hydroxybutanoate (Sodium 2-hydroxybutyrate, Sodium DL-2-hydroxybutyrate), converted from 2-Aminobutyric acid, is an intermediate metabolite.

S3127 2,4-Dihydroxypyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid

2,4-Dihydroxypyrimidine-5-carboxylic Acid (Uracil 5-carboxylic acid, Isoorotic acid, 5-Carboxyuracil) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3128 N-Acetyl-D-galactosamine

N-Acetyl-D-galactosamine (D-N-Acetylgalactosamine) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3131 L-(-)-Glucose

L-Glucose (L-(-)-Glucose) is an enantiomer of D-glucose. L-Glucose promotes food intake while cannot be used by cells as an energy source because it cannot be phosphorylated by hexokinase.

S3134 D-(-)-Tartaric acid

D-(-)-Tartaric acid is the unnatural isomer of Tartaric acid which is an important chiral chemical building block with broad industrial and scientific applications.

S3141 Maleimide Maleimide exhibits fluorescence quenching ability and can be used for the specific detection of thiol analytes as fluorogenic probes. Maleimide is also used for production of antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) which is used in cancer research.
S3142 Potassium sorbate

Potassium sorbate (Sorbic acid potassium) is a nonpoisonous food preservative isolated from Sorbus aucuparia. Potassium sorbate is an effective inhibitor of most molds and yeasts and some bacteria.

S3145 Pimelic acid

Pimelic acid (Heptanedioic acid, 1,5-Pentanedicarboxylic acid, 1,7-Heptanedioic acid) originating from fatty acid synthesis pathway is a bona fide precursor of biotin in B. subtilis.

S3152 Glutaric acid

Glutaric acid (GA) is an attractive C5 dicarboxylic acid with wide applications in the biochemical industry.

S3159 Citraconic acid

Citraconic acid (CA) is a kind of methyl-branched fatty acids that exists in wild soybean.

S3316 5-Hydroxy-1-tetralone

5-hydroxy-1-tetralone is a fluorescent labeling reagent for the determination of glycosphingolipid from small amounts of biological samples.

S3330 Maleamic acid

Maleamic acid ((Z)-4-Amino-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3339 3-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid

3-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid (Melilotic acid, Melilotate, 2-hydroxybenzenepropanoic acid) is an endogenous metabolite.

S2987 4-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid 4-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid (Ketoleucine, 4-MOV, KIC, 4-Methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid, alpha-Ketoisocaproic acid, alpha-ketoisocaproate, 2-Oxoisohexanoate) is released by Astrocytes to neurons and can be reaminated by aminotransferase to leucine. 4-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid reduces the rate of protein degradation in skeletal muscle. 4-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid acts as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and as a metabolic inhibitor possibly through its inhibitory effect on alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, OGDC) activity.
S3266 L-Anserine nitrate salt

L-Anserine nitrate salt, a dipeptide found in most animal tissues, exhibits antioxidant properties, anti-crosslinking, and anti-glycation activities. L-Anserine protects against neurotoxicity induced by ER-stress inducers.

S1273 Amarogentin

Amarogentin (AG), a secoiridoid glycoside mainly extracted from Swertia and Gentiana roots, exhibits anti-oxidative, anti-tumour, and anti-diabetic activities. Amarogentin is an agonist for the bitter taste receptor TAS2R1 and inhibits in LAD-2 cells substance P-induced production of newly synthesized TNF-α. Amarogentin induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells (SNU-16) through G2/M cell cycle arrest and PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. Amarogentin (AG) interacts with the α2 subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and activates the trimeric kinase with EC50 of 277 pM.

S0923 Isoliquiritin apioside Isoliquiritin apioside (ISLA, ILA), a component isolated from Glycyrrhizae radix rhizome (GR), significantly decreases PMA-induced increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities and suppresses PMA-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB. Isoliquiritin apioside possesses anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic abilities in malignant cancer cells and ECs, with no cytotoxicity.
S2869 Adamantane

Adamantane is a colorless, crystalline chemical compound first isolated from petroleum with a camphor-like odor. Adamantane is used to treat influenza A virus infections.

S9690 Caerulein (FI-6934) Caerulein (Ceruletide, Cerulein, FI-6934), a cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor agonist, is a safe and effective cholecystokinetic agent and small bowel and exocrine pancreatic stimulant.
S6924 D-Luciferin sodium salt D-Luciferin (D-(-)-Luciferin, Firefly luciferin) sodium salt is the natural substrate of luciferases that catalyze the production of light in bioluminescent insects.
S3290 Procyanidin B2 Procyanidin B2 (PCB2), a natural flavonoid found in commonly consumed foods, possess anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities. Procyanidin B2 activates PPARγ to induce M2 polarization in mouse macrophages. Procyanidin B2 significantly suppresses the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in the lung tissue induced by paraquat in the rat model.
S9700 Tapinarof Tapinarof (GSK2894512, Benvitimod, WBI 1001, DHPS, DMVT 505) is a natural agonist of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and induces nuclear translocation of AhR in immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT) with EC50 of 0.16 nM. Tapinarof induces cellular apoptosis in CD4+ T cells in a dosedependent manner with IC50 of 5.2 μM.
S6919 Brevilin A Brevilin A (6-O-Angeloylplenolina), a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Centipeda minima, is a selective inhibitor of STAT3 and attenuates the JAKs activity by blocking the JAKs tyrosine kinase domain JH1. Brevilin A induces apoptosis and autophagy of colon adenocarcinoma cell CT26 via mitochondrial pathway and PI3K/AKT/mTOR inactivation.
S0924 Pteryxin Pteryxin ((+)-Pteryxin), a dihydropyranocoumarin derivative found in Apiaceae family, is a potent inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with IC50 of 12.96 μg/ml. Pteryxin inhibits LPS-induced nitric oxide production in mouse peritoneal macrophages with IC50 of 20 µM. Pteryxin is potential for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment.
S0973 Wilforgine Wilforgine, one of the major bioactive sesquiterpene alkaloids in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F., induces microstructural and ultrastructural changes in the muscles of M. separata larvae, and the sites of action are proposed to be calcium receptors or channels in the muscular system.
S3254 Plantagoside Plantagoside, a flavanone glucoside isolated from the seeds of Plantago asiatica, is a specific and non-competitive alpha-mannosidase inhibitor with IC50 of 5 μM.
S3253 Xylobiose Xylobiose (1,4-β-D-Xylobiose, 1,4-D-Xylobiose), a disaccharide of xylose monomers, is a natural substrate that can be hydrolysed by Beta-D-Xylosidase/alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from Selenomonas ruminantium (SXA).
S3252 Xylotriose Xylotriose (1,4-b-D-Xylotriose, 1,4-beta-D-xylotriose) is a natural xylooligosaccharide substrate that can be hydrolysed by catalytically efficient beta-D-xylosidase from Selenomonas ruminantium (SXA).
S3222 Raspberry ketone glucoside Raspberry ketone glucoside (RKG), a natural product in raspberry fruit, is an antioxidant that has the inhibitory effect on the melanin synthesis.
S3223 L-Quebrachitol L-Quebrachitol (L-QCT), a natural product isolated from many plants, promotes proliferation and cell DNA synthesis. L-Quebrachitol upregulates bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) and regulatory genes associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, while down-regulating the receptor activator of the nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) mRNA level.
S3226 Dehydroabietic acid Dehydroabietic acid (DAA, DHAA), a naturally occurring diterpene resin acid derived from coniferous plants such as Pinus and Picea, displays anti-inflammatory activity via suppression of Src-, Syk-, and TAK1-mediated pathways.
S3278 Kaempferol-3-O-neohesperidoside Kaempferol 3-neohesperidoside (Kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside), a flavonoid isolated from the leaf extract of Primula latifolia Lapeyr. and Primula vulgaris Hudson, stimulates glycogen synthesis in rat soleus muscle via PI3K - GSK-3 pathway and MAPK - PP1 pathway.
S3289 Daphnoretin Daphnoretin (Dephnoretin, Thymelol), a biologically active compound isolated from Wikstroemia indica C.A. Mey., is a protein kinase C (PKC) activator. Daphnoretin inhibits the proliferation, invasion, and migration of tumor cells and promote its apoptosis by regulating the activity of Akt signal pathway.
S3295 Taxifolin 7-rhamnoside Taxifolin 7-rhamnoside (TR, Taxifolin 7-O-rhamnoside, Taxifolin 7-O-α-L-rhamnoside), a flavonoid isolated from Hypericum japonicum, shows antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
S3224 Cinobufagin Cinobufagin (Cinobufagine), an active ingredient of Venenum Bufonis, inhibits tumor development. Cinobufagin increases ATM and Chk2 and decreases CDC25C, CDK1, and cyclin B. Cinobufagin inhibits PI3K, AKT and Bcl-2 while increases levels of cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3. Thus, Cinobufagin induces cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and apoptosis.
S3230 L-Fucitol L-Fucitol (1-Deoxy-D-galactitol), a galactitol analogue isolated from Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg), inhibits galactitol-positive strains of Escherichia coli K12.
S3233 Emetine hydrochloride Emetine hydrochloride (NSC 33669), a principal alkaloid extracted from the root of ipecac clinically used as an emetic and antiprotozoal drug, reduces HIFs (hypoxia-inducible factors; HIF-1α and HIF-2α), PDK1, RhoA, Rho-kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2) and BRD4. Emetine hydrochloride inhibits cellular autophagy and has anti-malarial, anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-amoebic effect.
S3236 Mesaconitine Mesaconitine, one of the aconite alkaloids in Aconiti tuber, increases the [Ca2+]i level in endothelial cells by influx of Ca2+ from extracellular spaces.
S3238 Resibufogenin Resibufogenin (Bufogenin, Recibufogenin), a component of huachansu with anticancer effect, triggers necroptosis through upregulating receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) and phosphorylating mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein at Ser358. Resibufogenin exerts cytotoxic effect by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Resibufogenin induces apoptosis and caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity. Resibufogenin increases Bax/Bcl-2 expression, and suppresses cyclin D1, cyclin E, PI3K, p-AKT, p-GSK3β and β-catenin protein expression.
S3245 Nodakenetin Nodakenetin (NANI), a plant-derived coumarin isolated from Angelica decursiva, inhibits α-glucosidase, PTP1B, rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), AChE, BChE, and β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Nodakenetin alters the protein expression of Bax and Bcl-2, and prompts mitochondrial apoptosis. Nodakenetin exhibits anti-tumor activity.
S3251 Goitrin Goitrin (DL-Goitrin, (R, S)-Goitrin, R,S-goitrin) is one of the main constituent of Radix isatidis (Banlangen) which is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treating fever and removing toxic heat. Goitrin exhibits antiviral and antiendotoxin activity.
S3262 Scopolin Scopolin, a coumarin isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), attenuates hepatic steatosis through activation of SIRT1-mediated signaling cascades, a potent regulator of lipid homeostasis.
S3267 Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (Nicotiflorin, Nikotoflorin, Kaempferol 3-O-β-rutinoside), a flavonoid extracted from Carthamus tinctorius, alters the shape and structure of injured neurons, decreases the number of apoptotic cells, down-regulates expression of p-JAK2, p-STAT3, caspase-3, and Bax and decreases Bax immunoredactivity, and increases Bcl-2 protein expression and immunoreactivity.
S3271 Caudatin Caudatin (Cauldatin), one species of C‑21 steroidal from Cynanchum auriculatum (C. auriculatum), effectively inhibits human glioma growth in vitro and in vivo through triggering cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
S3273 Hypericin Hypericin (Hyp, HY) is a naturally occurring substance found in the common St. John's Wort (Hypericum species) with antidepressive, antineoplastic and antiviral (human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C virus) activities. Hypericin has inhibitory effects on MAO (monoaminoxidase), PKC (protein kinase C), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, reverse transcriptase, telomerase and CYP (cytochrome P450).
S3291 Myristicin Myristicin (Myristicine), a terpene-like active component in Nutmeg which is the seed of Myristica fragrans, is a weak inhibitor of monamine oxidase (MAO) and a mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP1A2.
S3296 Hispidulin Hispidulin (Dinatin), an active natrual ingredient in a number of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, exhibits inhibitory activity against the oncogenic protein kinase Pim-1 with IC50 of 2.71 μM. Hispidulin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of P13k/Akt signalling pathway in HepG2 cancer cells. Hispidulin exerts anti-osteoporotic and bone resorption attenuating effects via activating the AMPK signaling pathway.
S3300 Desoxyrhaponticin Desoxyrhaponticin (DC, DES), a stilbene glycoside from Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. (rhubarb) which is a traditional Chinese nutritional food, is a fatty acid synthase (FAS/FASN) inhibitor. Desoxyrhaponticin (DC, DES) is also a competitive inhibitor of glucose uptake with IC50 of 148.3 μM and 30.9 μM in rabbit intestinal membrane vesicles and in rat everted gut sleeves, respectively. Desoxyrhaponticin has apoptotic effect on human cancer cells.
S3301 Cynarin Cynarin (Cynarine) is an artichoke phytochemical that possesses a variety of pharmacological features including free-radical scavenging, antioxidant, antihistamic and antiviral activities. Cynarin blocks the interaction between the CD28 of T-cell receptor and CD80 of antigen presenting cells. Cynarin triggers Nrf2 nuclear translocation, restores the balance of glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inhibits mitochondrial depolarization.
S3305 Medicagenic acid Medicagenic acid (Castanogenin), a bioactive triterpenoid pentacyclic glycoside isolated from Herniaria glabra L., has low xanthine oxidase, collagenase, elastase, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity.
S3240 Phaseoloidin Phaseoloidin, a homogentisic acid glucoside from Nicotiana attenuata trichomes, contributes to the plant's resistance against lepidopteran herbivores. Phaseoloidin has anti-complement effects.
S3242 Loureirin B Loureirin B (LB, LrB), a flavonoid extracted from Dracaena cochinchinensis, is an inhibitor of PAI-1 with IC50 of 26.10 μM. Loureirin B downregulates p-ERK and p-JNK in TGF-β1-stimulated fibroblasts. Loureirin B promotes insulin secretion mainly through increasing Pdx-1, MafA, intracellular ATP level, inhibiting the KATP current, influx of Ca2+ to the intracellular.
S3246 Picfeltarraenin IB Picfeltarraenin IB, a cucurbitacin glycoside isolated from Picriafel-terrae, is an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Picfeltarraenin IB can be used for the treatment of herpes infections, cancer and inflammation.
S3260 3'-hydroxy Puerarin 3'-hydroxy Puerarin is an isoflavone isolated from Puerariae Lobatae Radix.
S3264 Atractyloside potassium salt Atractyloside potassium salt (ATR potassium salt), a toxic diterpenoid glycoside isolated from the fruits of Xanthium sibiricum (Cang'erzi), is a powerful and specific inhibitor of mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers. Atractyloside potassium salt inhibits chloride channels from mitochondrial membranes of rat heart.
S3269 Acetylcorynoline Acetylcorynoline, a major alkaloid component derived from Corydalis bungeana which is a traditional Chinese medical herb, shows anti-inflammatory properties. Acetylcorynoline may decrease egl-1 expression to suppress apoptosis pathways and increase rpn5 expression to enhance the activity of proteasomes.
S3270 Genipin 1-O-beta-D-gentiobioside Genipin 1-O-beta-D-gentiobioside (GG, Genipin 1-β-D-gentiobioside, Genipin 1-gentiobioside, Genipin 1-β-gentiobioside, Genipin gentiobioside) is a bioactive iridoid glycoside isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Zhizi in Chinese) that exhibits hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antithrombotic activities.
S3275 Senkyunolide I Senkyunolide I (SEI, SENI) is an orally active compound isolated from Ligusticum chuanxiong with analgesic, anti-migraine, neuroprotective, anti-oxidation and anti-apoptosis activities. Senkyunolide I (SEI, SENI) up-regulates the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and induces Nrf2 nuclear translocation with enhanced HO-1 and NQO1 expressions. Senkyunolide I (SEI, SENI) promotes the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and inhibits the expressions of cleaved caspase 3 and caspase 9.
S3297 Hosenkoside A Hosenkoside A is a bioactive baccharane glycoside isolated from the seeds of impatiens balsamina.
S3303 Cyperotundone Cyperotundone (CYT) is an active constituent in Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Cyperi Rhizoma (CRCR) for treating migraine.
S3307 Galangin 3-methyl ether Galangin 3-methyl ether (3-O-Methylgalangin, 3-Methylgalangin), isolated from Lychnophora markgravii aerial parts, shows strong antibacterial and antifungal effects.
S3308 Caftaric acid Caftaric acid (CA, Caffeoyl tartaric acid) is a natural product that shows anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
S3276 Hosenkoside K Hosenkoside K is a bioactive baccharane glycoside isolated from the seeds of impatiens balsamina.
S6906 Capric acid Capric acid (DA, Decanoic acid, Decylic acid), a component of medium-chain triclycerides occurring naturally in coconut oil and palm kernel oil, contributes to seizure control through direct AMPA receptor inhibition. Capric acid is also a modulating ligand for PPARs. Due to its specific melting range the product may be solid, liquid, a solidified melt or a supercooled melt.
S6899 Licochalcone D Licochalcone D (Lico D, LCD, LD), a flavonoid isolated from a Chinese medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza inflata, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Licochalcone D inhibit phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 in LPS signaling pathway. Licochalcone D inhibits JAK2, EGFR and Met (c-Met) activities and induces ROS-dependent apoptosis. Licochalcone D also induces caspases activation and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage.
S3265 9''-Methyl salvianolate B 9''-Methyl salvianolate B (9'-methyllithospermate B, 9'-Methyl lithospermate B, 9'''-Methyl salvianolate B) is an active constituent in ethanol extract of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae.
S6885 Ailanthone Ailanthone (AIL, Δ13-Dehydrochaparrinone), a natural anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) component in Ailanthus altissima, induces G0/G1-phase cell cycle arrest by decreasing expression of cyclins and CDKs and increases expression of p21 and p27. Ailanthone triggers DNA damage characterized by activation of the ATM/ATR pathway. Ailanthone induces apoptosis which is mitochondrion-mediated and involves the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in Huh7 cells. Ailanthone is also a potent inhibitor of both full-length Androgen Receptor (AR-FL) and constitutively active truncated AR splice variants (AR-Vs, AR1-651) with IC50 of 69 nM and 309 nM, respectively.
S0917 Allosecurinin Allosecurinine (Phyllochrysine) is a Securinega alkaloid isolated from M.indica and M.discoidea with antifungal activity.
S0906 6-Methoxydihydroavicine 6-Methoxydihydroavicine (6-Methoxy Dihydrosanguinarine) is an lkaloid isolated from the fruits of M.cordata.
S3288 Absinthin Absinthin (Absynthine) is a naturally produced triterpene lactone from Artemisia absinthium with anti-inflammatory properties. Absinthin significantly enhances the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and is a possible treatment candidate for Acute lung injury (ALI).
S3287 Rosamultin Rosamultin is a 19 α-hydroxyursane-type triterpenoid isolated from Potentilla anserina L. that inhibits HIV-1 protease. Rosamultin has protective effects on H2O2-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis.
S6340 Guanidinoacetic acid Guanidinoacetic acid (Guanidino acetic acid, GAA, Glycocyamine, Guanidinoacetate), the natural precursor of creatine, is under investigation as a dietary agent. Guanidinoacetic acid exhibits potential ergogenic benefits for physically active men and women.
S3220 Trigonelline Trigonelline (Trigenolline) is a plant alkaloid and a major component of coffee and fenugreek with anti-degranulation, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Trigonelline inhibits FcεRI-mediated intracellular signaling pathways, such as phosphorylation of PLCγ1, PI3K, and Akt. Trigonelline (Trigenolline) also inhibits the microtubule formation in RBL-2H3 cells.
S3235 Sinapine Sinapine is an alkaloid isolated from seeds of the cruciferous species with antioxidant, antitumor and radio-protective activities. Sinapine inhibits the proliferation of Caco-2 cells via downregulation of P-glycoprotein.
S3261 Myrislignan Myrislignan, a lignan isolated from Myristica fragrans Houtt, possesses anti-inflammatory activities. Myrislignan inhibits interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Myrislignan significantly inhibits the expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) dose-dependently in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. Myrislignan inhibits the NF-κB signalling pathway activation.
S3279 Polyphyllin B (Formosanin C) Polyphyllin B (Formosanin C, FC), a diosgenin saponin isolated from Paris formosana, is an immunomodulator with antitumor activity. Polyphyllin B (Formosanin C, FC) induces apoptosis.
S3280 Linderene Linderene (Lindenenol) is a furanosesquiterpenoid isolated from Lindera pulcherrima with antibacterial and antioxidant activities.
S3281 Quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucose-7-O-β-D-gentiobioside Quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucose-7-O-β-D-gentiobioside (Quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucose-7-O-β-D-gentiobiosiden, Quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucose-7-O-beta-D-gentiobioside) is an active constituent of Descurainiae Semen.
S3298 Caulophylline (N-Methylcytisine) Caulophylline (N-Methylcytisine, Caulophyllin, NMC) is a tricyclic quinolizidine alkaloid with anti-inflammatory activities. Caulophylline binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) from squid optical ganglia with Kd of 50 nM. Caulophylline significantly reduces myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, blocks the activation of NF-κB by inhibiting IκB and IKK phosphorylation.
S3302 β,β-dimethyl-acryl-alkannin β,β-dimethyl-acryl-alkannin (AN-I, β,β-Dimethylacrylalkannin) is a napthoquinone isolated from roots of Arnebia nobilis Reichb.f. that has the potential to be used as an anti-aging ingredient.
S3304 Stylopine Stylopine ((R,S)-Stylopine, Tetrahydrocoptisine) reduces nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and the IL-6 production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity caused by the LPS stimulation. Stylopine is a major component of the leaf of Chelidonium majus L.
S3306 1,1,1,1-Kestohexaose 1,1,1,1-Kestohexaose is a major DP 6 fructan in crested wheatgrass leaves.
S3205 Perillaldehyde Perillaldehyde (Perilladehyde, Perillal, PAE, PA), the main component of Perilla frutescens (a traditional medicinal antioxidant herb), inhibits BaP-induced AHR activation and ROS production, inhibits BaP/AHR-mediated release of the CCL2 chemokine, and activats the NRF2/HO1 antioxidant pathway.
S3227 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3As that markedly decreases the expression of CYP3A11 and CYP3A25 in the liver. 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) is also a potent Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP, ABCG2) inhibitor. 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) is one of the major components of Kaempferia parviflora with anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic effects.
S3237 Deoxyaconitine 3-Deoxyaconitine is a diterpenoid alkaloid isolated from the root of Aconitum Carmichaeli Debx.
S3241 Loureirin A Loureirin A is a flavonoid extracted from the red resin of the herbs of Dracaena cochinchinensis, which is known as Dragon's Blood. Loureirin A inhibits platelet activation by an impairment of PI3K/Akt signaling. Loureirin A inhibits Akt phosphorylation.
S3247 Icariside I Icariside I (Icarisid I) is one of the main components in Epimedii Folium that significantly stimulates cell proliferation and osteoblasts differentiation.
S3249 Corypalmine Corypalmine ((R)-(+)-Corypalmine), an alkaloid isolated from Stephania cepharantha, is an inhibitor of prolyl endopeptidase/oligopeptidase (PREP/POP) with IC50 of 128.0 μM.
S3255 Pectolinarigenin Pectolinarigenin, an active anti-inflammatory ingredient in Cirsium chanroenicum, is a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX).
S3256 Tectochrysin Tectochrysin (Techtochrysin, NSC 80687) is one of the major flavonoids of Alpinia oxyphylla Miquel. Tectochrysin significantly increases the expression of DR3, DR4 and Fas and inhibits activity of NF-κB. Tectochrysin induces apoptotic cell death.
S3257 Rebaudioside B Rebaudioside B (Reb B) is one of the minor steviol glycosides (SGs) isolated from Stevia rebaudiana and has a better taste quality than many of the major SGs.
S3259 Rebaudioside D Rebaudioside D (Reb D) is one of the several glycosides (SGs) found in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) which has been identified as a potential sweetener.
S3272 Steviol (Hydroxydehydrostevic acid) Steviol (Hydroxydehydrostevic acid, Hydroxy Dehydrostevic Acid, NSC 226902), a major metabolite of the sweetening compound stevioside, inhibits CFTR activity, reduces AQP2 expression and promotes AQP2 degradation.
S3274 Glucosyl-vitexin Glucosyl-vitexin (Glucosylvitexin), the major C-glycosylflavone present in millet, inhibits thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity.
S3282 Rebaudioside M Rebaudioside M, isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, is a natural non-caloric potential sweetener in food and beverage products.
S3283 Marmesin Marmesin (S-(+)-Marmesin, (+)-Marmesin, (S)-Marmesin) is a natural coumarin with COX-2 and 5-LOX dual inhibitory activity.
S3284 Tracheloside Tracheloside is a lignan glycoside isolated from seeds of Carthamus tinctorius with anti-estrogenic effects. Tracheloside significantly decreases the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP) (an estrogen-inducible marker enzyme) with IC50 of 0.31 μg/ml. Tracheloside promotes keratinocyte proliferation through ERK1/2 stimulation.
S3285 Dihydrolycorine Dihydrolycorine is a derivative of lycorine, an alkaloid isolated from Lycoris radiata Herb. Dihydrolycorine blocks protein synthesis in ascites cells and stabilize HeLa cell polysomes in vivo. Dihydrolycorine exhibits antihypertensive and neuroprotective activities.
S3299 Demethyleneberberine Demethyleneberberine (DMB), a component of Cortex Phellodendri Chinensis (CPC), significantly alleviates the weight loss and diminishes myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, while significantly reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and inhibits the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Demethyleneberberine (DMB) potentially ameliorates NAFLD (Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) by activating AMPK pathways.
S0553 Butyl isobutyl phthalate  Butyl isobutyl phthalate (BIP), isolated from the rhizoid of Laminaria japonica, is a non-competitive inhibitor of α-glucosidase with IC50 of 38 μM. Butyl isobutyl phthalate displays a significant hypoglycemic effect and has the potential for diabetes treatment.
S3206 5a-Pregnane-3,20-dione 5a-Pregnane-3,20-dione (5alphaP, 5-a-dihydroprogesterone, 3,20-allopregnanedione, 5-Alpha-Dihydro Progesterone) is the endogenous progesterone metabolite. 5a-Pregnane-3,20-dione depolymerizes actin and decreases expression of actin and vinculin. 5a-Pregnane-3,20-dione is involved in promoting breast neoplasia and metastasis by affecting adhesion and cytoskeletal molecules.
S2440 Vindesine sulfate Vindesine sulfate (Eldesine, Eldisine, Desacetyl Vinblastine amide, Desacetylvinblastine amide, DAVA, DVA, VDS), a vinca alkaloid derived from Catharanthus roseus, is a potent inhibitor of mitosis with antineoplastic activities. Vindesine binds to the microtubular proteins of the mitotic spindle, leading to crystallization of the microtubule and mitotic arrest or cell death.
S0949 Cucurbitacin IIb Cucurbitacin IIb (CuIIb, Dihydrocucurbitacin F, 25-deacetyl hemslecin A) inhibits phosphorylation of STAT3, JNK and Erk1/2, enhances the phosphorylation of IκB and NF-κB, blocks nuclear translocation of NF-κB and decreases mRNA levels of IκBα and TNF-α. Cucurbitacin IIb exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and induces apoptosis. Cucurbitacin IIb is isolated from Hemsleya amabilis.
S6852 Gossypol Gossypol (BL 193) is an orally-active polyphenol isolated from cotton seeds and roots. Gossypol is a potent inhibitor of 5α-reductase 1 and 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with IC50 of 3.33 μM and 0.52 μM in cell-free assay, respectively. Gossypol also inhibits the binding of BH3 peptide to Bcl protein with IC50 of 0.4 μM and 10 μM for Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, respectively. Gossypol induces apoptosis and cell growth inhibition in various cancer cells.
S3210 3'-Hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone 3'-Hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone (Acetoisovanillone, Isoacetovanillone, Diosmin EP Impurity A) is an active P. spinosa extract with anti-inflammatory potential.
S3213 Veratryl alcohol Veratryl alcohol (VA, Veratrole alcohol, 3,4-Dimethoxybenzyl alcohol), a secondary metabolite of some lignin degrading fungi, is the natural substrate of Lignin peroxidase (LiP).
S3214 Veratraldehyde (3,4-Dimethoxybenzaldehyde) Veratraldehyde (3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, VD, VAD, VAld, Verapamil Related Compound E, Methylvanillin), a derivative of vanillin, is the chemical that is found and isolated from peppermint, ginger, bourbon vanilla, and fruits such as raspberry. Veratraldehyde is widely used as a flavorant and odorant because of its pleasant woody fragrance. Veratraldehyde also acts as a redox cycle agent.
S3215 2-O-α-D-Glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid 2-O-α-D-Glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G), which is a glucoside derivative of ascorbic acid (AA), shows vitamin C activity after enzymatic hydrolysis to ascorbic acid. The antitumor activity of AA-2G is caused by ROS generated by AA released by rapid hydrolysis of AA-2G.
S3203 D-Alanine D-alanine (Ala, (R)-Alanine, Ba 2776, D-α-Alanine, NSC 158286) is an endogenous co-agonist at the glycine site of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor.
S3293 Gardenoside Gardenoside is a natural compound extracted from Gardenia fruits, with hepatoprotective properties. Gardenoside inhibits TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and NFκB activation. Gardenoside also has an inhibitory effect on free fatty acids (FFA)-induced cellular steatosis. Gardenoside suppresses the pain in rats model of chronic constriction injury by regulating the P2X3 and P2X7 receptors.
S3292 Falcarindiol Falcarindiol (FAD, (3R,8S)-Falcarindiol, FaDOH) is a natural polyacetylene compound found rich in many plants of the Umbelliferae family. Falcarindiol suppresses LPS-stimulated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Falcarindiol attenuates the LPS-induced activation of JNK, ERK, STAT1, and STAT3 signaling molecules.
S3263 Agarotetrol Agarotetrol is a chromone derivative found in high concentrations in the water-extract fraction of agarwood. Agarotetrol contributes to the fragrance of agarwood through the generation of LACs upon heating.
S3216 Uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose disodium salt Uridine-5'-diphosphoglucose (UDPG, UDP-Glc, UDP-D-Glucose, UDP-α-D-Glucose) activates the P2Y(14) receptor, a neuroimmune system GPCR. Uridine-5'-diphosphoglucose is the precursor of glucose-containing oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animal tissues and in some microorganisms.
S3250 Veratrine Veratridine (Cevadine, Cevadin, Cevadene), a steroidal alkaloid found in plants of the lily family, is a voltage-gated sodium channel activator. Veratridine induces anxiogenic-like behaviors in rats.
S7904 2',3'-cGAMP Sodium Salt 2',3'-cGAMP Sodium Salt (2'-3'-cyclic GMP-AMP Sodium) is produced in response to DNA in the cytoplasm in mammalian cells and binds STING with high affinity and is an effective inducer of interferon-β (IFNβ). 2',3'-cGAMP binds to STING with Kd of 3.79 nM.
S6630 Dimethylcurcumin (ASC-J9) Dimethylcurcumin (ASC-J9, Dimethyl curcumin, GO-Y025) is an androgen receptor (AR) degradation enhancer that suppresses castration-resistant prostate cancer growth through degradation of full-length and splice variant androgen receptors.
S2766 Glycerol Glycerol (Glycerin) is a clear, colourless and viscous liquid that can be used as emollient, solvent or sweetening agent. Glycerol changes the separation characteristics of polyacrylamide nucleoprotein gels.
S8587 Withaferin A Withaferin A (WA, WFA) potently inhibits NF-κB activation by preventing the tumor necrosis factor-induced activation of IκB kinase β via a thioalkylation-sensitive redox mechanism. Withaferin A binds to the intermediate filament (IF) protein, vimentin with antitumor and antiangiogenesis activity. Withaferin A is a steroidal lactone isolated from Withania somnifera.
S2653 9-amino-CPT (9-Aminocamptothecin) 9-amino-CPT (9-Aminocamptothecin, 9-AC, Aminocamptothecin, 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin) is a Topoisomerase I inhibitor with potent anticancer activities. 9-amino-CPT (9-Aminocamptothecin) is an active, water-insoluble derivative of camptothecin.
S8620 6-Diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine 6-Diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (Diazooxonorleucine, L-6-Diazo-5-oxonorleucine, DON), an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces, is a glutaminase antagonist with IC50 of ~1  mM for cKGA (kidney-type glutaminase). 6-Diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine exhibits analgesic, antibacterial, antiviral and anticancer properties.
S2654 Neoruscogenin Neoruscogenin, a natural sapogenin isolated from R. rhizoma, is a potent and high-affinity agonist of RAR-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα or nuclear receptor NR1F1).
S8970 HQNO HQNO (2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide) is a natural quinolone secreted by P. aeruginosa. HQNO is a potent inhibitor of the electron transport chain with Kd of 64 nM for the ubiquinol-ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase segment (Complex III) of the respiratory chain. HQNO is also an inhibitor of bacterial and mitochondrialType II NADH : quinone oxidoreductase (NDH-2) with IC50 of 7.3 μM in the presence of 50μM menadione.
S7895 Thapsigargin Thapsigargin is a potent, non-competitive inhibitor of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) with IC50 of 0.353 nM or 0.448 nM for the carbachol-evoked [Ca2+]i-transients with or without a KCl-prestimulation. Thapsigargin induces cell apoptosis. Thapsigargin is extracted from a plant, Thapsia garganica.
S7905 3',3'-cGAMP 3',3'-cGAMP (3',3'-cyclic GMP-AMP, Cyclic GMP-AMP, cGAMP) activates the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident receptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING), thereby inducing an antiviral state and the secretion of type I IFNs.
S7821 Bufalin Bufalin (BF) is a potent inhibitor of steroid receptor coactivator SRC-3, SRC-1 and Na+/K+-ATPase. Bufalin binds to the subunit α1, α2 and α3 of Na+/K+-ATPase with Kd of 42.5 nM, 45 nM and 40 nM, respectively. Bufalin is a major digoxin-like immunoreactive component isolated from the Chinese medicine Chan Su with anti-cancer activity.
S7862 Rottlerin Rottlerin (Mallotoxin, NSC 56346, NSC 94525), a natural compound purified from Mallotus Philippinensis, is a specific Protein kinase inhibitor with IC50 of 3 μM, 6 μM and 5.3 μM for PKCδ(from baculovirus-infected Sf9 insect cells), PKCδ(from porcine spleen) and CaM kinase III, respectively. Rottlerin also inhibits PKCα, PKCγ, PKCβ, PKCη, CKII and PKA with IC50 of 30 μM, 40 μM, 42 μM, 82 μM, 30 μM and 78 μM, respectively.
S2447 Ansamitocin p-3 (Maytansinol isobutyrate, NSC292222) Ansamitocin p-3 (Maytansinol isobutyrate, NSC292222, Antibiotic C 15003P3) is a potent inhibitor of tubulin polymerization with IC50 of 3.4 μM.
S6790 Ellipticine hydrochloride Ellipticine Hydrochloride (NSC 71795, PZE) is a potent inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II and forms covalent DNA adducts mediated by its oxidation with cytochromes P450 (CYP) and peroxidases. Ellipticine Hydrochloride is a natural product isolated from the Australian evergreen tree of the Apocynaceae family with antineoplastic activity.
S8964 Actinomycin D (Dactinomycin) Actinomycin D (Dactinomycin, Act D, RASP-101) is a significant polypeptide antibiotic isolated from soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces. Actinomycin D (Dactinomycin) inhibits DNA repair and rests the cell cycle at G1 phase with IC50 of 0.42 μM and 0.4 nM, respectively. Actinomycin D is an autophagy activator, induces p53-independent cell death and prolongs survival in high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
S2288 Rubitecan Rubitecan (9-NC, 9-Nitro-camptothecin, Partaject Orathecin, Partaject rubitecan, RFS 2000) is a topoisomerase I inhibitor extracted from the bark and leaves of the Camptotheca acuminata tree, which is native to China. Rubitecan is an oral camptothecin with antitumour activity.
S2009 Indirubin-3'-monoxime Indirubin-3'-monoxime (Indirubin-3'-oxime) is a selective CDK inhibitor with IC50 of 0.18 μM, 0.44 μM, 0.25 μM, 3.33 μM, 0.065 μM for CDK1-cyclinB, CDK2-cyclinA, CDK2-cyclinE, CDK4-cyclinD1, CDK5-p35,respectively. Indirubin-3'-monoxime is a direct and selective 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor with IC50 of 7.8-10 µM.
S1031 3-Hydroxybutyric acid 3-Hydroxybutyric acid (3-hydroxybutanoic acid, β-Hydroxybutyric acid, BHB) is a small molecule metabolite that is elevated in type I diabetes.
S2342 Phloretin (RJC 02792) Phloretin (RJC 02792, NSC 407292, Dihydronaringenin) is a dihydrochalcone found in apple tree leaves, which shows beneficial effects on diabetes.
S9440 Naringenin chalcone Naringenin chalcone (Chalconaringenin, Isosalipurpol, trans-2'4'6'4-tetrahydroxychalcone) is the main active component of tomato skin extract, has been proposed as an antioxidant, an anti-inflammatory, and a regulator of fat and sex hormone metabolism.
S2325 Morin Hydrate Morin hydrate (Aurantica) is a flavonoid isolated from Maclura pomifera (Osage orange), Maclura tinctoria (old fustic) and from leaves of Psidium guajava (common guava).
S6670 GPNA (L-γ-Glutamyl-p-nitroanilide) GPNA (L-γ-Glutamyl-p-nitroanilide) is a potent and selective inhibitor of the glutamine (Gln) transporter ASCT2(SLC1A5) with Ki of 55 µM.
S2210 Sphingosine Sphingosine (2-amino-4-trans-octadecene-1,3-diol, C18 Sphingosine) is an 18-carbon amino alcohol with an unsaturated hydrocarbon chain, which forms a primary part of sphingolipids, a class of cell membrane lipids that include sphingomyelin, an important phospholipid.
S6674 Cytosporone B Cytosporone B is a naturally occurring agonist for nuclear orphan receptor Nur77(NR4A1) with an EC50 of 0.278 nM.
S6474 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2) 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2, NSC 90469) is an endogenous metabolite of thyroid hormones. 3,5-Diiodo-l-thyronine has been proposed as a potential hypolipidemic agent for treatment of obesity and hepatic steatosis.
S9218 Phytolaccagenin Phytolaccagenin, a triterpenoid saponin, is the active component of Radix Phtolaccae.
S6653 Nigericin (NSC 292567) sodium salt Nigericin (NSC 292567) sodium salt is an antibiotic derived from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that works by acting as an H+, K+, and Pb2+ ionophore.Nigericin can activate NLRP3 inflammasome to induce pro-inflammatory and immunostimulatory processes.
S3911 Veratramine Veratramine (NSC 17821, NSC 23880), a major alkaloid from Veratrum nigrum L., has distinct anti-tumor and anti-hypertension effects. It is a good membrane permeant, undergoes rapid passive diffusion, and has a good stability in the gastrointestinal tract during its absorption.
S9403 Ecliptasaponin A Ecliptasaponin A, a natural triterpenoid glucoside, has protective effects against the pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin via reducing the oxidative stress, lung tissue inflammation, and the subsequent epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
S3928 Baccatin Ⅲ Baccatin Ⅲ is a polycyclic diterpene which can be used for the semi-synthesis of paclitaxel and analogs. It exhibits immunomodulatory and anticancer chemotherapeutic activities.
S4938 Cedrol Cedrol, a natural occuring sesquiterpene alcohol, is a potent competitive inhibitor of CYP2B6-mediated bupropion hydroxylase with inhibition constant (Ki) value of 0.9 μM. It also inhibits CYP3A4-mediated midazolam hydroxylation with a Ki value of 3.4 μM while only weakly inhibits CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 activities.
S3942 Cardamonin Cardamonin (Alpinetin chalcone), isolated from the fruits of Alpinia species, is a chalconoid with anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity. It has been shown to be a novel antagonist of hTRPA1 cation channel with IC50 of 454 nM while does not interact with TRPV1 nor TRPV4 channel.
S3756 Methyl salicylate Methyl salicylate (Betula oil, Gaultheria oil, Methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate, Natural wintergreen oil) is an organic ester naturally produced by many species of plants, particularly wintergreens. It is an agonist for TRPA1 and TRPV1.
S3763 Cinnamaldehyde Cinnamaldehyde is a flavonoid that is naturally synthesized by the shikimate pathway. Its supplementation can improve glucose and lipid homeostasis in diabetic animals; a TRPA1 agonist.
S3605 Borneol Borneol is a bicyclic monoterpenoid compound extracted from medicinal plants such as Blumea balsamifera, and Dryobalanops aromatica. It is a TRPM8 agonist that increases ocular surface wetness.
S4787 Methyl syringate Methyl syringate (Syringic Acid Methyl Ester), a plant phenolic compound, is a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist.
S3867 (E)-Cardamonin (E)-Cardamonin (Alpinetin chalcone, cardamomin) is a naturally occurring chalcone with strong anti-inflammatory activity. It is a novel TRPA1 antagonist with IC50 of 454 nM and also a NF-kB inhibitor.
S4714 (-)-Menthol (-)-Menthol (L-Menthol, Levomenthol, Menthomenthol, Menthacamphor) is a levo isomer of menthol and used as a cooling agent that strongly activates TRPM8.
S2332 Neohesperidin Neohesperidin (NSC 31048), a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits, is an antioxidant agent.
S5755 Methyl Eugenol Methyl eugenol (4-allylveratrole, eugenyl methyl ether, O-methyleugenol), as a constituent in leaves, fruits, stems, and/or roots, is used as a flavoring agent, as a fragrance and as an anesthetic in rodents.
S2935 Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride is the chloride salt form of nicotinamide riboside(NR).NR is a new form pyridine-nucleoside of vitamin B3 that functions as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD) or NAD+ . Nicotinamide riboside chloride is a crystal form of Nicotinamide riboside (NR) chloride. Nicotinamide riboside chloride increases NAD[+] levels and activates SIRT1 and SIRT3, culminating in enhanced oxidative metabolism and protection against high fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. Nicotinamide riboside chloride is used in dietary supplements.
S3607 Sarsasapogenin Sarsasapogenin (SAR, Parigenin) is a steroidal sapogenin. It can provoke the generation of reactive oxygen species and activate unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathways. SAR potently inhibits NF-κB and MAPK activation, as well as IRAK1, TAK1, and IκBα phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated macrophages.
S2425 Apocynin (NSC 2146) Apocynin (NSC 2146, Acetovanillone, NSC 209524) is a selective NADPH-oxidase inhibitor with IC50 of 10 μM.
S9332 (+)-Dipentene (+)-Dipentene, occurring commonly in nature as the fragrance of oranges, is a flavoring agent in food manufacturing.
S5578 Cadaverine Cadaverine is a foul-smelling diamine formed by bacterial decarboxylation of lysine that occurs during protein hydrolysis during putrefaction of animal tissue.
S5140 Cinene Cinene (Limonene, Dipentene) is a clear, colorless liquid hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic monoterpene, and is the major component in oil of citrus fruit peels. It is usually used to make fragrances and flavors.
S5408 Isoprene Isoprene, also called 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, is usually used as a chemical raw materia.
S6206 1-Butanol 1-Butanol occurs naturally as a minor product of the fermentation of sugars and other carbohydrates, and is present in many foods and beverages.
S6019 2-Phenylphenol 2-Phenylphenol, found in lemon, is an antifungal agent and preservative used in food seasonings.
S5429 Diallyl sulfide Diallyl sulfide, a thioether found naturally in garlic, is a selective inhibitor and also a substrate of CYP2E1 with an IC50 of 17.3 μM. It has protective effects against alcohol- and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in many studies.
S6751 Brevianamide F Brevianamide F, belonging to a class of naturally occurring 2,5-diketopiperazines, is the simplest member and the biosynthetic precursor of a large family of biologically active prenylated tryptophan-proline 2,5-diketopiperazines that are produced by the fungi A.fumigates and Aspergillus sp..
S6359 Purine Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound which plays crucial roles in DNA and RNA. It is also significant components in a number of other important biomolecules, such as ATP, GTP, cyclic AMP, NADH, and coenzyme A.
S2353 Sapogenins Glycosides Sapogenins glycosides (Saponins) are a mixture of triterpene and steroid saponins isolated from medicinal plants such as Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hedera helix L. and Ruscus aculeatus L., which are claimed to be effective for the treatment/prevention of venous insufficiency.
S3627 Tryptamine Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid and may play a role as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter. It is an agonist of hTAAR1. It acts as a non-selective serotonin receptor agonist and serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (SNDRA).
S5153 Tetrahydroberberine Tetrahydroberberine (Canadine) is an isoquinoline alkaloid with micromolar affinity for dopamine D2 (antagonist, pKi = 6.08) and 5-HT1A (agonist, pKi = 5.38) receptors but moderate to no affinity for other relevant serotonin receptors.
S3823 Schizandrol A Schizandrol A is one of the effective components in the dried fruit of Schizandra chinensis Bail and works by increasing dopamine, a neurotransmitter, in the brain.
S5642 Homovanillic acid Homovanillic acid (Vanillacetic acid) is a major catecholamine metabolite that is used as a reagent to detect oxidative enzymes, and is associated with dopamine levels in the brain.
S9087 Tenuifolin Tenuifolin, a secondary saponin isolated from hydrolysates of polygalasaponins, inhibits beta-amyloid synthesis in vitro and has nootropic activity in vivo via acetylcholine esterase inhibition and increases norepinephrine and dopamine production.
S2367 Tetrahydropapaverine HCl Tetrahydropapaverine (Norlaudanosine), one of the TIQs and an analogue of salsolinol and tetrahydropapaveroline, has been reported to have neurotoxic effects on dopamine neurons.
S3937 Pterostilbene Pterostilbene is a natural dietary compound and the primary antioxidant component of blueberries. It has been implicated in anticarcinogenesis, modulation of neurological disease, anti-inflammation, attenuation of vascular disease, and amelioration of diabetes.
S6428 Wilforlide A Wilforlide A is an active compound in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TW) which is a traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of autoimmune diseases.
S5850 Vasicine Vasicine, an alkaloid isolated from A. vasica, is a potential natural cholinesterase inhibitor, exhibits promising anticholinesterase activity in preclinical models and has been in development for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
S7956 Brusatol Brusatol (NSC 172924), isolated from the fruit of B. javanica, is a NRF2 inhibitor.
S3781 Ginkgolide C Ginkgolide C (BN-52022), isolated from Ginkgo biloba leaves, is a flavone reported to have multiple biological functions, from decreased platelet aggregation to ameliorating Alzheimer disease. It is an activator of MMP-9.
S9513 Senkyunolide A Senkyunolide A is one of the major bioactive ingredients in Rhizoma Chuanxiong, a Chinese medicinal herb commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular ailments.
S6049 (+)-(S)-Carvone (+)-(S)-Carvone, a monoterpene found mainly in caraway and dill seed oils, is used in cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical preparations.
S6700 Castor oil Castor oil is a popular natural treatment for various common conditions and often used in natural beauty products.
S3830 Protodioscin Protodioscin (Furostanol I), a steroidal saponin compound found in a number of plant species, is able to stimulate testosterone production and it also has an androgen-mimetic action, binding and activating the testosterone receptors.
S8870 Epibrassinolide Epibrassinolide is a brassinosteroid isolated from various plants and has been shown to decrease toxicity and stimulate healthy plant growth in plants under stress.
S6701 Corn Oil Corn oil is a refined vegetable oil, and is used as delivery vehicle for fat-soluble compounds.
S9326 Scopolamine Scopolamine (Skopolamin) is a tropane alkaloid derived from plants of the nightshade family, specifically Hyoscyamus niger and Atropa belladonna, with anticholinergic, antiemetic and antivertigo properties.
S3860 Allicin Allicin (Diallyl Thiosulfinate), the main biologically active component of the freshly crushed garlic extracts, possesses various biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic effects.
S6493 n-Butylidenephthalide n-Butylidenephthalide ((Z)-Butylidenephthalide, 3-Butylidenephthalide, Butylidenephthalide), isolated from the chloroform extract of Angelica sinensis (AS-C), contributes to a range of biological activities, including diminution of angina, platelet aggregation, proliferation, non-specific spasmosis.
S6601 (±)-Equol (±)-Equol, an isoflavandiol estrogen, is a metabolite of the soy isoflavones, daidzin and daidzein.
S3687 Urea Urea (Carbonyldiamide, Ureophil) is a highly soluble organic compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
S3839 1-Deoxynojirimycin 1-Deoxynojirimycin (duvoglustat, moranolin) is a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor and most commonly found in mulberry leaves. It has therapeutic potency against diabetes mellitus.
S3190 N6-methyladenosine (m6A) N6-methyladenosine (m6A, NSC-29409, 6-Methyladenosine, N-Methyladenosine) is a base modified analog of adenosine and is found as a minor nucleoside in natural RNAs.
S2370 Ursolic Acid Ursolic acid (NSC 167406, NSC-4060, Prunol, Urson, Malol) is a pentacyclic triterpene acid, used in cosmetics.
S6426 Hesperidin methylchalcone Hesperidin methylchalcone is the Citrus original products with powerful antioxidant activity.
S3821 Nuciferine Nuciferine (Sanjoinine E, (-)-Nuciferine, VLT 049) is a major active aporphine alkaloid from the leaves of N. nucifera Gaertn and possesses anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-hypotensive, anti-arrhythmic, and insulin secretagogue activities.
S9227 Sinensetin Sinensetin (Pedalitin Permethyl ether), a natural polymethoxylated flavone, has potent antiangiogenesis activity.
S3973 L-SelenoMethionine L-SelenoMethionine (SeMet), a naturally occurring amino acid, is a major food-form of selenium. It has been used as a supplement, and exhibits some important functions like cancer prevention and antioxidative defense.
S2324 Sodium Monensin (NSC 343257) Sodium Monensin (NSC 343257), isolated from Streptomyces cinnamonensis, is a well-known representative of naturally polyether ionophore antibiotics.
S2348 Rotenone (Barbasco) Rotenone (Barbasco, Dactinol, Paraderil, Rotenon, Rotocide) is a botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport. Rotenone inhibits NADH/DB oxidoreductase and NADH oxidase with IC50 of 28.8 nM and 5.1 nM, respectively. Rotenone induces apoptosis through enhancing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production.
S2265 Artesunate (WR-256283) Artesunate (WR-256283) is a part of the artemisinin group of agents with an IC50 of < 5 μM for small cell lung carcinoma cell line H69. It is a potential inhibitor of STAT-3 and exhibits selective cytotoxicity of cancer cells over normal cells in vitro; A potent inhibitor of EXP1.
S6176 Scyllo-Inositol Scyllo-Inositol (Scyllitol, Cocositol, Quercinitol, AZD 103, Scyllo-Cyclohexanehexol) is a naturally occurring plant sugar alcohol found most abundantly in the coconut palm.
S6292 (S)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid (S)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid (L-Malic acid), is a naturally occurring isomer of malic acid, found mainly in sour and unripe fruits.
S6346 L-(+)-Arabinose L-(+)-Arabinose (DL-Arabinose, Pectinose) is used as a substrate to identify, differentiate and characterize pentose sugar isomerase(s).
S6061 DL-m-Tyrosine DL-m-Tyrosine is a potent, structurally unusual broad-spectrum phytotoxin exuded by the roots of some fine leaf fescue grasses.
S6163 Traumatic acid Traumatic acid (Trans-2-dodecenedioic acid) is a plant hormone that was first isolated from damaged green beans. It is a potent wound healing agent and an intermediate in prostaglandin synthesis.
S6264 Rutin hydrate Rutin (Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, Rutoside, Sophorin) is a glycoside found in a wide variety of plants including citrus fruit.
S6112 Oxalacetic acid Oxalacetic acid (Oxaloacetic acid, 2-Oxosuccinic acid, Ketosuccinic acid) is an intermediate of the citric acid cycle, where it reacts with acetyl-CoA to form citrate, catalysed by citrate synthase. It is also involved in gluconeogenesis, urea cycle, glyoxylate cycle, amino acid synthesis, and fatty acid synthesis. Oxaloacetate is also a potent inhibitor of Complex II.
S6221 Methyl cinnamate Methyl cinnamate, an active component of Zanthoxylum armatum, is a widely used natural flavor compound with antimicrobial and tyrosinase inhibitor activities. Methyl Cinnamate Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation via Activation of the CaMKK2--AMPK Pathway in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes.
S6008 p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde (4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-Formylphenol, p-Formylphenol), which can be found in the orchids Gastrodia elata, Galeola faberi and vanilla, is a hydroxybenzaldehyde that reacts with NAD+ and H2O to produce 4-hydroxybenzoate, NADH, and 2 protons.
S6011 Acetamide Acetamide (ethanamide, Acetic acid amide) is an organic compound that can be used as a plasticizer and an industrial solvent.
S6018 2,3,4-Trihydroxybenzoic acid 2,3,4-Trihydroxybenzoic acid is a phenol constituent of Pachysandra terminalis with antioxidant activity.
S6043 3-Indoleacetonitrile 3-Indoleacetonitrile, a plant growth hormone, is a light-induced auxin-inhibitory substance that is isolated from light-grown cabbage (Brassica olearea L.) shoots.
S6045 L-Arabinitol L-Arabinitol is a member of the class of compounds known as sugar alcohols that exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. It can be found in a number of food items such as sweet potato, deerberry, moth bean, and European chestnut, which makes L-arabitol a potential biomarker for the consumption of these food products.
S6047 Lactose Lactose is a disaccharide naturally found in milk and dairy.
S6071 3,5-Dimethoxyphenol 3,5-Dimethoxyphenol (Phloroglucinol dimethyl ether) is a toxin metabolite that can be found in human consuming yew (Taxus baccata) leaves.
S6076 Phenylacetylglutamine Phenylacetylglutamine is a product formed by the conjugation of phenylacetate and glutamine. It is a normal constituent of human urine, but other mammals such as the dog, cat, rat, monkey, sheep, and horse do not excrete this compound.
S9564 p-Hydroxy-cinnamic Acid p-Hydroxy-cinnamic Acid has in vitro antimalarial activity and in vivo anti-osteoporotic properties.
S2254 4-Demethylepipodophyllotoxin(NSC-122819,VM-26) 4-Demethylepipodophyllotoxin (NSC-122819, VM-26, DMEP) is an antimitotic agent which binds to monomeric tubulin, preventing micro-tubule polymerization. It is a potent inhibitor of microtubule assembly.
S2442 Inosine Inosine (NSC 20262, INO 495) is a nucleoside that is formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.
S2280 Chlorogenic Acid Chlorogenic acid (NSC 407296, Heriguard) is a hydroxycinnamic acid and a member of a family of naturally occurring organic compounds.
S6250 L-Lactic acid L-Lactic acid is a natural product that is used as a food additive.
S6275 (−)-β-Pinene (−)-β-Pinene (Nopinene) is a natural organic compound in various plants. It is lethal to S. littoralis third instar larvae (LD50 = 65 μg/larva), inhibits infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) replication (IC50 = 1.32 mM) and exhibits a cytotoxic concentration (CC50) value of greater than 10 mM in Vero cells.
S6287 3-Methylbutanoic acid 3-Methylbutanoic acid (Isovaleric acid, Delphinic acid, 3-Methylbutyric acid, Isopentanoic acid, β-methylbutyric acid) is a natural fatty acid found in a wide variety of plants and essential oils. It has a strong pungent cheesy or sweaty smell, but its volatile esters have pleasing scents and are used widely in perfumery.
S6296 Octanoic acid Octanoic acid (caprylic acid) is found naturally in the milk of various mammals, and as a minor constituent of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. It is used in the production of esters used in perfumery and also in the manufacture of dyes.
S6303 trans-2-Hexenal Trans-2-hexenal (Leaf aldehyde) is an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound protecting plants against harmful substances.
S5887 Khellin Khellin (Methafrone, Visammin, Ammivisnagen, Khellinorm, Medekellin, Viscardan, Kalangin), a compound isolated from the seeds of Ammi Visnaga Lam (Umbelliferae), is used to treat a variety of maladies.
S2331 Neohesperidin Dihydrochalcone (Nhdc) Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone(Nhdc, NCI-c60764), sometimes abbreviated to neohesperidin DC or simply NHDC, is an artificial sweetener derived from citrus.
S9432 Ginkgolic Acid Ginkgolic acid, toxic phenolic compounds present in the fruits and leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., is a potent sumoylation inhibitor also reported to inhibit histone acetylation transferase (HAT).
S9445 Ginkgolic Acid (C13:0) Ginkgolic Acid (C13:0) is a natural anticariogenic agent in Ginkgo biloba L. that exhibits antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and suppresses the specific virulence factors associated with its cariogenicity. Ginkgolic acid is a potent sumoylation inhibitor and reported to inhibit histone acetylation transferase (HAT).
S2360 Solanesol (Nonaisoprenol) Solanesol (Nonaisoprenol, Betulanonaprenol) is a long-chain polyisoprenoid alcohol compound with inhibitory activities toward FAK. It mainly accumulates in solanaceous crops, including tobacco, tomato, potato, eggplant, and pepper plants.
S2369 Troxerutin Troxerutin, a natural bioflavonoid isolated from Sophora japonica., has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties.
S5934 (-)-Fenchone Fenchone is a constituent of absinthe and the essential oil of fennel. It is used as a flavor in foods and in perfumery.
S6055 (S)-(−)-Limonene (S)-(−)-Limonene, a fragrance monoterpene mainly found in citrus peel oil, is also naturally occurs in the essential oils of herbs, tea tree oil, and turpentine oil.
S6058 β-Caryophyllene β-Caryophyllene is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that is a constituent of many essential oils. It acts as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, a fragrance and a metabolite.
S6059 cis-3-Hexen-1-ol cis-3-Hexen-1-ol (Leaf alcohol) is a very important aroma compound that is used in fruit and vegetable flavors and in perfumes and acts as an attractant to many predatory insects.
S6118 Terpinen-4-ol Terpinen-4-ol, a naturally occurring monoterpene, is the main bioactive component of tea-tree oil and has been shown to have many biological activities such as antifungal properties.
S6150 Farnesyl Acetate (mixture of isomers) Farnesyl Acetate is a flavouring compound identified in foods such as blueberries.
S6162 2-Octenoic acid 2-Octenoic acid (2-Octenoate) is a normal organic acid produced by hepatic microsomal oxidation of aliphatic aldehydes and is a metabolite naturally found in the urine and plasma.
S6164 (-)-Citronellal (-)-Citronellal, a constituent of citronella oil, is used in the synthesis of bioactive compounds.
S6185 Arachidonic acid Arachidonic acid (Arachidonate) is an unsaturated, essential fatty acid found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs. It is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
S6208 Diethyl malonate Diethyl malonate, naturally occuring in grapes and strawberries, is used in the synthesis of chemicals.
S9476 Dendrobine Dendrobine, a plant alkaloid isolated from Dendrobium nobile, has been used for the quality control and discrimination of Dendrobium.
S9551 Uvaol Uvaol is a pentacyclic triterpene, found in the non-glyceride fraction of olive pomace oil, exhibiting both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties.
S4792 N-Acetylneuraminic acid N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, NeuAc, Acido aceneuramico, Acide aceneuramique, Acidium aceneuramicum, Sialic acid, NANA) is the predominant sialic acid found in mammalian cells. Sialic acids are negatively charged monosaccharides attached to the end of sugar chains, giving rise to a wide variety of glycoproteins and glycolipids in biological fluids and cell membranes.
S5526 β-Alanine β-Alanine (beta-Alanine, 3-Aminopropanoic acid) is a naturally occurring beta amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. It acts as a neurotransmitter by activating glycine and GABA receptors.
S4676 Gluconolactone Gluconolactone is a naturally occurring polyhydroxy acid with metal chelating, moisturizing and antioxidant activity.
S5851 4'-Methoxychalcone 4'-Methoxychalcone, found in citrus, is chalcone derivative that has shown diverse pharmacological properties, including anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9481 Blinin Blinin, isolated from the whole plant of Conyza blinii, is used in folk medicine in the south-west of China.
S9557 Isobergapten Isobergapten is a furanocoumarin with plant growth regulating activity.
S9560 Anisodamine Hydrobromide Anisodamine (6-Hydroxyhyoscyamine) is a naturally occurring atropine derivative and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. It also inhibits α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs).
S5865 Hyaluronic acid Hyaluronic acid (HA, Hyaluronan, Hyaluronate) is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues. It is widely used in skin care.
S9193 Aristolochic acid A Aristolochic acid A (Aristolochic Acid I, Aristolochin, Aristolochine, TR 1736) is a carcinogenic, mutagenic, and nephrotoxic agent extracted from the flowering plant family Aristolochiaceae.Aristolochic acid A significantly reduces both activator protein 1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activities.
S9563 Evodine Evodine, a natural product extracted from Evodiae fructus (EF), is a biomarker for quality assessment of EF in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Evodine is a potent P-gp inhibitor.
S9554 Bakkenolide A Bakkenolide A (Fukinanolid), extracted from Petasites tricholobus, has been suggested to against cancer and display protective effects on inflammatory cytokines formation.
S9552 Farrerol Farrerol, an important bioactive constituent of rhododendron, exhibits broad activities such as anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.
S9487 Praeruptorin C Praeruptorin C is a natural compound derived from the dried roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum and has beneficial effects in suppressing osteoclast formation and resorption function. It is frequently utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for treating upper respiratory infections and as an antipyretic, antitussive, and mucolytic agent.
S9484 Darutoside Darutoside, derived from botanical extracts, has a powerful regenerating action via decreasing inflammation and restoring collagen.
S9480 Raspberry Ketone Raspberry ketone (p-Hydroxybenzyl acetone, Frambinone, Oxyphenylon, Rheosmin, Rasketone) is a natural phenolic compound that is the primary aroma compound of red raspberries.
S9473 Nuzhenide Nuzhenide (Specnuezhenide), a major component of olive seeds, is a member of the class of compounds known as saccharolipids. It has strong antioxidant activity.
S9474 Acetylharpagide Acetylharpagide is a monomeric compound extracted from Ajuga decumbens, widely used for remedying infectious and inflammatory diseases.
S5846 Apocarotenal Apocarotenal is a carotenoid found in spinach and citrus fruits and plays a role as a precursor of vitamin A.
S9475 Hupehenine Hupehenine is a steriodal alkaloid extracted from the bulbs of Fritillaria Hupehensis, with the potential for inhibiting acetylcholine, antagonism for muscarinic receptors and cholinesterase inhibition.
S9479 Complanatoside A Complanatoside A is a flavonol glycoside isolated from Astragalus complanatus and is used as a quality control index for A. complanatus in the 2010 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.
S9488 Praeruptorin D Praeruptorin D, a major pyranocoumarin isolated from Radix Peucedani, exhibits antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9491 (+)-Guaiacin (+)-Guaiacin, found in herbs and spices, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aryltetralin lignans.
S9555 Vincristine Vincristine (Leurocristine, NSC-67574, 22-Oxovincaleukoblastine) is a natural alkaloid isolated from the plant Vinca rosea Linn. with anti-tumor activity. Vincristine inhibits microtubule formation in mitotic spindle and binds to microtubule with Ki of 85 nM.
S9562 Pomolic acid Pomolic acid is a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from Euscaphis japonica, and is highly effective in inhibiting cell growth and induces apoptosis.
S9192 Vitexin Vitexin (Apigenin-8-C-glucoside), an naturally occuring apigenin flavone glycoside, acts as a platelet aggregation and alpha-glucosidase inhibitor and shows antineoplastic activity.
S3964 Mucic Acid Mucic Acid (Schleimsaure, Saccharolactic acid, Tetrahydroxyadipic acid, D-Glucaric acid, Galactaric acid) is the dicarboxylic sugar acid resulting from oxidation glactose with dilute nitric acid. It is a substrate of galactarate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase.
S5928 Zerumbone Zerumbone, derived from several plant species of the Zingiberaceae family, is a naturally occurring dietary compound and may have multiple biomedical properties, such as antiproliferative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities.
S5794 Glycochenodeoxycholic acid Glycochenodeoxycholic acid (Glycochenodeoxycholate, Chenodeoxycholylglycine, Glycine chenodeoxycholate) is a bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption. Glycochenodeoxycholic acid
S5820 L-Hydroxyproline L-Hydroxyproline (trans-4-Hydroxy-L-proline) is a collagen-specific amino acid. It is used as a diagnostic marker of bone turnover and liver fibrosis.
S5824 Cinnamyl alcohol Cinnamyl alcohol is a naturally occurring compound that is found within cinnamon.
S5821 Linoleic acid Linoleic acid (9,12-octadecadienoic acid) is an essential fatty acid used in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid and found in the lipids of cell membranes.
S5823 L-Pyroglutamic acid L-pyroglutamic acid (L-pyroglutamate, 5-Oxoproline, pidolic acid) is a natural nutrient and amino acid derived from glutamic acid. It is a metabolite in the glutathione cycle that is converted to glutamate by 5-oxoprolinase.
S5828 L-Abrine L-Abrine (N-Methyl-L-tryptophan), an extremely toxic toxalbumin found in the seeds of the rosary pea, is a ribosome inhibiting protein.
S9367 Adenosine disodium triphosphate Adenosine disodium triphosphate (ATP disodium) is the sodium salt form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a complex organic chemical that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells.
S5805 Allopregnanolone Allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid synthesized from progesterone in brain, acts as a highly potent positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor.
S5771 Sulforaphane Sulforaphane is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate derived from the consumption of cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, and kale. It is an inducer of Nrf2. Sulforaphane is also an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and NF-κB. Sulforaphane increases heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and reduces the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sulforaphane induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
S9334 2-Pentylfuran 2-Pentylfuran (2-Amylfuran) is a naturally occuring flavouring ingredient.
S9383 Methyl palmitate Methyl palmitate (Methyl hexadecanoate, Palmitic acid methyl ester), a kind of fatty acid methyl ester, could be found in many plants and possesses acaricidal activity.
S9453 2-Undecanol 2-Undecanol (Methyl nonyl carbinol, 2-Hydroxyundecane, 2-Hendecanol) is a fatty alcohol lipid molecule.
S9454 Undecanoic acid Undecanoic acid (Undecylic acid) is a medium chain length monocarboxylic acid that appears to be involved in the control of triacylglycerol synthesis.
S9385 Ligustilide Ligustilide is the most abundant bioactive ingredient in Rhizoma Chuanxiong, a Chinese medicinal herb commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular ailments. Solutions are best fresh-prepared.
S9033 Incensole acetate Incensole acetate, isolated from Boswellia Resin, is a novel anti-inflammatory compound that inhibits NF-κB activation.
S9043 6-Shogaol 6-Shogaol, a naturally occuring product found in ginger, has anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties.
S9071 Nootkatone Nootkatone, a natural ingredient that occurs in grapefruit and certain other plants, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
S9094 Pogostone Pogostone is one of the secondary metabolites from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Lamiaceae), serving as the effective component of the antimicrobial activity.
S9118 Beta-Asarone Beta-Asarone, found in certain plants such as Acorus and Asarum, could pass the blood-brain barrier and exerts neuroprotection effects.
S9140 Pulegone Pulegone, a naturally occurring organic compound, is a fragrance and flavour ingredient.
S9142 Sparteine Sparteine, which could be extracted from scotch broom, is a sodium channel blocker and a class 1a antiarrhythmic agent.
S9236 α-Cyperone α-Cyperone (alpha-cyperone), a major active compound of Cyperus rotundus, exhibits biological activities, such as antivirulence, antigenotoxic, and antibacterial activities. α-Cyperone (alpha-cyperone) is associated with the down-regulation of COX-2, IL-6, Nck-2, Cdc42 and Rac1.
S9263 3-n-Butylphathlide 3-n-Butylphathlide, initially isolated from the seeds of Apium graveolens Linn., has shown significant neuroprotective effects.
S5370 10-Hydroxydecanoic acid 10-Hydroxydecanoic acid, a minor constituent of royal jelly, is a saturated fatty acid that has cytotoxic effects.
S9450 1-Undecanol 1-Undecanol (Undecyl alcohol, 1-Hendecanol), found naturally in many foods such as fruits (including apples and bananas), butter, eggs and cooked pork, is used as a flavoring ingredient.
S5761 Citric acid Citric acid is a weak organic acid that occurs naturally in citrus fruits. It is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle.
S5763 D-Mannose D-mannose is a naturally occurring simple sugar that may help your body cleanse the urinary tract and maintain a healthy bladder lining.
S5391 α-Boswellic acid α-Boswellic acid is a naturally occuring triterpenoic acid.
S5757 Isoeugenol Isoeugenol (4-Propenylguaiacol), an essential oil constituent of nutmeg, clove, and cinnamon, shows antimicrobial activity.
S5759 Methyl linoleate Methyl linoleate (Linoleic acid methyl ester), found in cloves, is a fatty acid methyl ester of linoleic acid which is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes.
S5756 Methyl Stearate Methyl Stearate (Methyl Octadecanoate, Stearic Acid methyl ester), found in cloves, is an antifoaming agent and fermentation nutrient.
S5577 6-Biopterin 6-Biopterin ( L-Biopterin, L-Erythro-Biopterin) is a natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.
S5743 γ-Linolenic acid γ-Linolenic Acid (18:3, n-6), the Δ6-desaturase product of linolenic acid, is an unsaturated fatty acid found primarily in vegetable oils.
S5600 Flavokawain A Flavokawain A, extracted from kava, is an apoptotic inducers and anticarcinogenic agent. Flavokawain A can down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins, such as XIAP, survivin, and Bcl-xL, thereby changing the balance between apoptotic and antiapoptotic molecules and then induce cell death in tumor cells.
S5732 Sebacic acid Sebacic acid (1,8-Octanedicarboxylic acid) is a saturated, straight-chain naturally occurring dicarboxylic acid
S5733 Stearic acid Stearic acid (Octadecanoic acid, Isostearic acid, Cetylacetic acid) is a natural saturated fatty acid found in animal and vegetable fats. It could be used as a food additive and used in soaps, cosmetics and detergents.
S9375 2'-Hydroxyacetophenone 2'-Hydroxyacetophenone is a flavouring ingredient.
S9379 Dihydrocoumarin Dihydrocoumarin, a compound found in Melilotus officinalis (sweet clover) and Dipteryx odorata Willd (tonka beans), is added as a flavoring agent to a wide variety of foods, including soft drinks, yogurt, and muffins, and is used as a common fragrance in cosmetics, lotions, and soaps.
S9382 Thymine Thymine (5-methyluracil) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA.
S9333 Gibberellins A4/A7 Gibberellins A4/A7 (Gibberellin A4 and A7) is the Gibberellin A4 Mixture With Gibberellin A7. Gibberellins A4/A7 promotes internode elongation & breaks certain dormancies in seeds. Gibberellins A4/A7 is an endogenous plant growth regulator, promotes the growth and elongation of cells.
S5691 Terpinyl Acetate Terpinyl Acetate (alpha-Terpinyl), a naturally occuring compound found in several essential oils, is a flavouring agent.
S5616 4-Methylcatechol 4-Methylcatechol (P-Methylcatechol, 3,4-Dihydroxytoluene, Homocatechol) is an inducer of nerve growth factor. It is used to synthesize antimicrobial and antioxidant.
S9352 Homogentisic Acid Homogentisic Acid (Melanic acid, 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) is found in Arbutus unedo (strawberry-tree) honey or present in the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli as well as in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.
S5684 Lapachol Lapachol (Tecomin, CI75490, Bethabarra wood, Greenhartin), a natural compound isolated from the bark of the lapacho tree, shows both antimicrobial and antiviral activity.
S5640 Ethyl caffeate Ethyl caffeate, a naturally occurring compound found in Bidens pilosa, suppresses NF-kappaB activation and its downstream inflammatory mediators, iNOS, COX-2 and PGE2 in vitro.
S5680 (-)-Verbenone (-)-Verbenone (2-Pinen-4-one), an important component of the essential oil from rosemary, is an insect pheromone with a spicy odor and camphoraceous fragrance.
S5617 Myristic Acid Myristic acid (Tetradecanoic acid) is a fatty acid that occurs naturally in some foods. Myristic acid inhibits the phosphorylation of poly E4Y by Src with an Ki of 35 μM.
S9046 Berberine Berberine (Umbellatine), an alkaloid isolated from Rhizoma coptidis, has broad applications, particularly as an antibacterial agent in the clinic.
S9047 Leonurine Hydrochloride Leonurine (SCM-198), a natural alkaloid extracted from Herba leonuri, is a promising anti-glycation agent with vasodilator, antioxidative, cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects.
S9037 Tenacissoside H Tenacissoside H, a natural compound found in M. tenacissima, exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects.
S9027 Corynoxine Corynoxine, a natural oxindole alkaloid, is a new autophagy enhancer.
S9041 Corosolic acid Corosolic acid (Glucosol, Colosic acid, 2α-Hydroxyursolic acid) is one of the pentacyclic triterpenoids isolated from Lagerstroemia speciose and has been reported to exhibit anti-cancer and anti-proliferative activities in various cancer cells.
S9035 Isovitexin Isovitexin (saponaretin, Apigenin-6-C-glucoside), an active component of many traditional Chinese medicines, has various activities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-alzheimer disease (AD) effects and so on.
S9032 Sanguinarine Sanguinarine (Pseudochelerythrine, Sanguinarin, Sanguinarium), a benzophenanthridine alkaloid known as an anti-inflammatory agent, is a potent inhibitor of NF-κB activation.
S9036 (20R)Ginsenoside Rh2 (20R)Ginsenoside Rh2, a natural compound found in Panax ginseng, shows antiviral and anticancer activities. It is a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor.
S9024 3-O-Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) 3-O-Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), the major active ingredient of the gum resin from Boswellia serrata and Boswellia carteri Birdw., exerts anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects and noncompetitively inhibits 5-lipoxygenase, topoisomerase, and leukocyte elastase.
S9044 Ginsenoside F2 Ginsenoside F2, a ginsenoside found in Panax species, is an autophagic initiater with anti-cancer, and anti-obesity activities.
S9042 Wedelolactone Wedelolactone, a medicinal plant-derived natural compound, is an inhibitor of IKK that is critical for activation of NF-κB by mediating phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Wedelolactone is also an inhibitor of caspase-11.
S9030 Tenacissoside I Tenacissoside I is a natural compound found in M. tenacissima at relatively high level.
S5677 Xanthopterin Hydrate Xanthopterin, isolated from butterfly wings and found in many other sources, replace folic acid in the nutrition of many animal species.
S9353 L-serine L-serine, one of the so-called non-essential amino acids, plays a central role in cellular proliferation.
S9349 D-(+)-Raffinose pentahydrate Raffinose is a trisaccharide composed of galactose, glucose, and fructose.
S9341 3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid 3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid (Caffeic acid dimethyl ether) is a bioavailable coffee component as a perspective anti-prion compound and bind potently to prion protein with a Kd of 405 nM.
S9344 DL-Methionine DL-Methionine is an amino acid that has a role in the defence of oxidative stress.
S9004 Chondroitin 4-sulfate Chondroitin 4-sulfate is an important structural component of cartilage and has been used as a dietary supplement to treat symptoms of joint discomfort.
S9373 Neryl acetate Neryl acetate (Nerol, Acetic acid neryl ester, cis-Geranyl), a chemical compound found in citrus oils, is a flavouring agent.
S9339 S-(-)-Cotinine S-(-)-Cotinine, a constituent of tobacco products and the major metabolite of nicotine, stimulates nicotinic receptors to evoke the release of DA in a calcium-dependent manner from superfused rat striatal slices.
S9372 Ethyl palmitate Ethyl palmitate (Ethyl hexadecanoate, Palmitic acid ethyl ester) is a long-chain fatty acid ethyl ester that is used as a hair- and skin-conditioning agent.
S4937 4'-Hydroxychalcone 4'-Hydroxychalcone (P-Cinnamoylphenol), found in herbs and spices and tea, is a member of the class of compounds known as retrochalcones. It has diverse biological activities, inhibiting TNFα-induced NF-κB pathway activation in a dose-dependent manner and activating BMP signaling.
S3622 Diammonium Glycyrrhizinate Diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is extracted and purified from liquorices (Radix glycyrrhizae). It is known for its anti-inflammatory effects, resistance to biologic oxidation and membranous protection. DG is able to reduce inflammatory injury via suppression of NF‑κB, TNF‑α and intercellular adhesion molecule 1.
S3769 Palmatine Palmatine (Berbericinine, Burasaine), an isoquinoline alkaloid, has sedative, antidepressant, antioxidative, anti-ulcerative, antacid, anticancer, and anti-metastatic activities.
S3788 Carvacrol Carvacrol (Cymophenol), monoterpenic phenol isomeric with thymol, has diverse activities such as antimicrobial, antitumor, an-timutagenic, antigenotoxic, analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, antiparasitic, antiplatelet, AChE inhibitory, antielastase, insecticidal, antihepatotoxic and hepatoprotective activities.
S5176 Fructose Fructose (D-(-)-Fructose, Fruit sugar, levulose, fructosteril, D-fructofuranose, D-arabino-hexulose) is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants.
S5178 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)furanone 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)furanone (furaneol, HDMF) is a naturally occurring substance found in a variety of fruits and has been shown to have antimicrobial activity.
S5592 Vitamin A Vitamin A (Retinol) is a naturally occuring fat-soluble vitamin that is important for normal vision, the immune system, and reproduction. It also plays roles in normal functioning of heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs.
S5591 Ectoine Ectoine ( THP(B)) is a natural amino acid derivate with membrane stabilizing and inflammation reducing capacities. It is produced by bacteria living under extreme harsh environmental conditions where it serves as osmoregulatory compatible solute.
S4888 Guanine Guanine is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA.
S5505 2’-deoxyuridine 2'-deoxyuridine (dU, 2'-dU) is frequently halogenated to create thymidine analogues useful for studies of DNA synthesis and degradation mechanisms.
S5503 O-Acetyl-L-carnitine hydrochloride O-Acetyl-L-carnitine (Acetyl-L-carnitine, O-acetyl-L-carnitine, O-Acetylcarnitine) can be synthesis or is naturally found in healthy humans. It could help transport fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix where fatty acid metabolism occurs.
S9368 ADP ADP (Adenosine diphosphate, adenosine pyrophosphate, Adenosine 5'-diphosphate) is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.
S5550 Ethyl gallate Ethyl gallat (Phyllemblin, gallic acid ethyl ester), which could be found naturally in a variety of plant sources, is a food additive with antimicrobial activity
S9390 Astragaloside II Astragaloside II, extracted from Astragalus membranaceus, has been reported to promote tissue wound repair and could be a potential adjunctive agent in cancer chemotherapy, enhancement of osteogenesis, and modulation of T cell activation.
S9166 Griffonilide Griffonilide is a natural product that has been reported to induce bone remodeling activity resulting in structural changes.
S9169 Polygalasaponin F Polygalasaponin F, a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Polygala japonica, possesses anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities, and has cognition improving and cerebral protective effects.
S9198 Obtusifolin Obtusifolin is anthraquinone found in the seeds of Cassia obtusifolia, has inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation and aldose reductase.
S9220 Stylopine hydrochloride Stylopine (Tetrahydrocoptisine, Coptisine), a major component of the leaf of Chelidonium majus L., is a protoberberine-type alkaloid that has potential biological activities, including anti-inflammatory activity.
S9241 Polygalaxanthone III Polygalaxanthone III is a natural product with the efficacy of tranquilization, glaangal, eliminating sputum and detumescence. Polygalaxanthone III inhibits chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation catalyzed by CYP2E1 with an IC50 of 50.56 μM.
S9259 Lithospermic acid Lithospermic acid, an active component isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza radix, is known to have multiple pharmacological actions such as antihypertensive and antioxidant effects.
S9262 Raddeanin A Raddeanin A (Raddeanin R3, NSC382873), a triterpenoid saponin from Anemone raddeana Regel, displays moderate inhibitory activity against histone deacetylases (HDACs) and has high antiangiogenic potency, antitumor activity.
S9264 Decursin Decursin (D), purified from Angelica gigas Nakai, shows potential anti-inflammatory activity and neuroprotective property.
S9306 Corynoxeine Corynoxeine, which could be isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla, is a useful and prospective compound in the prevention and treatment for vascular diseases. It is a potent ERK1/2 inhibitor of key PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation.
S9310 Isorhychophylline Isorhynchophylline (IsoRhy, 7-Isorhyncophylline) is a major tetracyclic oxindole alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.)Jacks (Gouteng in Chinese). It acts as a neuronal autophagy inducer with therapeutic potential for cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases.
S9414 Cyasterone Cyasterone is the main phytoecdysteroid component found in Cyathula capitata. It is a natural EGFR inhibitor and maybe a promising anti-cancer agent.
S9448 D-(+)-Turanose D(+)-Turanose is a naturally occuring compound. It is a reducing disaccharide.
S5745 Glyceryl 1,3-dipalmitate Glyceryl 1,3-dipalmitate acts as a metabolite of saccharomyces cerevisiae, plant and human.
S9507 (−)-Norepinephrine (−)-Norepinephrine (Arterenol, Levarterenol, L-Noradrenaline) is a natural neurotransmitter and hormone. It is an agonist of adrenergic receptors with Ki values of 330, 56, and 740 nM for α1, α2, and β1 adrenoceptors, respectively.
S9505 Oleanonic Acid Oleanonic Acid (3-Ketooleanolic Acid, 3-Oxooleanolic acid), extracted from Pistacia terebinthus galls, is a cell cycle inhibitor and used as antitumor agents.
S5686 Tryptanthrin Tryptanthrin is a natural alkaloidal compound having basic indoloquinazoline moiety. It has broad spectrum of biological activities including anticancer activity, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoal, antiallergic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial.
S5690 Triacanthine Triacanthine, which could be isolated from the leaves of G. triacanthos, shows hypertensive activity, also cardiotonic, antispasmodic and a respiratory analeptic.
S5554 Lanatoside C Lanatoside C is a cardiac glycoside with antiviral and anti-tumor activity. Lanatoside C induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and induces autophagy and apoptosis via attenuating MAPK, Wnt, JAK-STAT, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways.
S5312 Urolithin A Urolithin A (3,8-Dihydroxy Urolithin, 2',7-Dihydroxy-3,4-benzocoumarin), a metabolite of ellagitannin, is a first-in-class natural compound that induces mitophagy both in vitro and in vivo following oral consumption.
S3817 Harmine hydrochloride Harmine (Telepathine), a fluorescent harmala alkaloid belonging to the beta-carboline family of compounds, is a highly cell-permeant and competitive inhibitor of ATP binding to the kinase pocket of DYRK1A, with about 60-fold higher IC50 value for DYRK2. Harmine also inhibits monoamine oxidases (MAOs) and cdc-like kinases (CLKs). Harmine inhibits 5-HT2A serotonin receptor with Ki of 397 nM.
S5318 Acacetin Acacetin (Linarigenin, 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone, 4'-Methoxyapigenin) is a flavonoid compound that has been shown to have anti-cancer, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-peroxidative effects.
S9345 Disodium 5'-Inosinate Disodium 5'-Inosinate, widely distributed in all animal and plant tissues, is used as a flavor enhancer.
S9059 4'-O-Glucosylvitexin 4'-O-Glucosylvitexin is a kind of flavonoid fraction from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida.
S9364 6-Hydroxycoumarin 6-Hydroxycoumarin demonstrates cytotoxic effect against the cancer cell lines.
S9365 Disodium uridine-5'-monophosphate Disodium uridine-5'-monophosphate is a nucleotide that is a major component of ribonucleic acid.
S9366 5'-Adenylic acid AMP, also known as 5'-Adenylic acid and Adenosine monophosphate, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. It is used as a dietary supplement to boost immune activity, and is also used as a substitute sweetener to aid in the maintenance of a low-calorie diet.
S9369 Xanthosine Xanthosine (Xanthine riboside) is an intermediate in purine metabolism, formed from IMP, and forming GMP.
S9370 Adenosine Cyclophosphate Adenosine Cyclophosphate (Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cAMP, cyclic AMP, 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is useful for improving myocardial hypoxia, dilating coronary artery and strengthening myocardiac contraction.
S9384 Sophocarpine Monohydrate Sophocarpine, a naturally occurring tetracyclic quinolizidine alkaloid derived from Sophora alopecuroides L, has shown promising therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and antivirus activities.
S9386 Polygalacic acid Polygalacic acid is the triterpenoid tetrahydroxyacid isolated from Polygala paenea L.. Polygalacic acid (0-100 μM; 24 hours) significantly decreases the mRNAexpressions of MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-13 and COX-2, which are significantly increased by IL-1β, in a dose-dependent manner.
S9387 Maackiain Maackiain (Demethylpterocarpin) is a pterocarpan that is widely distributed in leguminous plants. It has anticancer and antimicrobial effects.
S9388 (+)-Praeruptorin A Praeruptorin A is a coumarin compound naturally occurring in the roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn., a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of certain respiratory diseases and hypertension. Praeruptorin A exerts anti-inflammatory effects in vitro through inhibition of NF-κB activation. (+)-Praeruptorin A is one of enantiomers.
S9389 Phorbol Phorbol is a natural, plant-derived organic compound that exerts a broad range of biological activities.
S9401 3,6'-Disinapoyl sucrose 3,6'-Disinapoyl sucrose (Disinapoyl sucrose), an oligosaccharide ester natural product originating from the root of wild Polygala tenuifolia, has neuroprotective effects and antidepressive activity in rats.
S9400 Rhynchophylline Rhynchophylline (Mitrinermine), an active component isolated from species of the genus Uncaria, acts as a calcium channel blocker and is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine mainly for treating ailments of central nervous and cardiovascular systems, such as lightheadedness, convulsions, numbness, and hypertension.
S9398 Crassicauline A Crassicauline A, a diterpenoid alkaloid in Aconitum herbs, is an analgesic drug clinically used in China.
S9397 Alliin Alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide, ACSO, 3-(Allylsulphinyl)-L-alanine) is a sulfoxide that is a natural constituent of fresh garlic.
S9396 Geraniin Geraniin, a hydrolysable polyphenol derived from Nephelium lappaceum L. fruit rind, has been shown to possess significant antioxidant activity in vitro.
S9392 Praeruptorin B Praeruptorin B is an important compound isolated from Bai-hua Qian-hu and has been reported to exert multiple biochemical and pharmacological activities.
S9402 (20R)-Protopanaxadiol (20R)-Protopanaxadiol, isolated from the roots of Panax ginseng, has protective effect on myocardial ischemia.
S9404 Pristimerin Pristimerin is a naturally occurring triterpenoid that has been shown to suppress the proliferation of various cancer cell lines at the concentration (IC50) range of 0.2-4 μM, including those of breast, glioma, prostate, pancreatic, ovarian, colon.
S9405 Sesamoside Sesamoside, a main chemical ingredient iridoid glycoside from Lamiophlomic rotata, has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in animal studies.
S9406 Sauchinone Sauchinone, one of the active lignan isolated from the roots of Saururus chinensis, possesses diverse pharmacological properties, such as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects.
S9407 Angoroside C Angoroside C, an important phenylpropanoid glycoside of the traditional Chinese medicine Scrophulariae Radix, possesses the effects of preventing ventricular remodeling, reducing pulmonary oedema, and reducing blood pressure, as well as having the properties of anti-platelet aggregation, hepatoprotection and anti-nephritis, etc.
S9408 Beta-Elemonic acid Beta-Elemonic acid (3-Oxotirucallenoic Acid), a known triterpene isolated from Boswellia (Burseraceae), exhibits anti‑inflammatory effects.
S9409 Kavain Kavain, the main kavalactone found mostly in the roots of the kava plant, has anticonvulsive properties, attenuating vascular smooth muscle contraction through interactions with voltage-dependent Na+ and Ca2+ channels.
S9410 Euphorbia factor L1 Euphorbia factor L1, a diterpenoid isolated from Euphorbia lathyris, inhibits osteoclastogenesis and induces osteoclast apoptosis.
S9411 Liensinine Liensinine, an important functional compound in lotus seeds, has anti-cancer, anti-fibrosis, anti-proliferative, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9412 Flavokawain B Flavokawain B is a natural chalcone first isolated from extracts of kava roots that induces apoptosis in cancer cells.
S9413 Yangonin Yangonin (Y100550) is a dienolide kavalactone originally found in Piper methysticum (kava plant) and exhibits neuroprotective, neuromodulatory, and antifungal activities. It activates cannabinoid (CB1) receptors and potentiates the effects of GABA-A receptors.
S9416 Triptonide Triptonide, isolated from the roots of Tripterygium wilfordii, can effectively inhibit canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling by targeting the downstream C-terminal transcription domain of β-catenin or a nuclear component associated with β-catenin. It is also an antineoplastic agent, an anti-inflammatory agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
S9417 Homoplantaginin Homoplantaginin (Hispidulin-7-glucoside), a main flavonoid from a traditional Chinese medicine Salvia plebeia, has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Homoplantaginin inhibits TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression, IKKβ and NF-κB phosphorylation.
S9420 Sinoacutine Sinoacutine (Salutaridine), isolated from the Chinese drug Ching-fengteng, elicits mild antitussive properties.
S9421 Demethylnobiletin Demethylnobiletin (5-Demethylnobiletin) is a unique flavonoid found in citrus fruits with potential chemopreventive effects against human cancers.5-Demethylnobiletin is a direct inhibitor of 5-LOX with IC50 of 0.1 μM, without affecting the expression of COX-2. 5-Demethylnobiletin has anti-inflammatory activity, inhibits leukotriene B 4(LTB4) formation in rat neutrophils and elastase release in human neutrophils with IC50 of 0.35 μM.
S9422 Diosbulbin B Diosbulbin B is the main hepatotoxic compound in Airpotato yam, which is traditionally used for treating thyroid disease and cancer.
S9423 Narcissoside Narcissoside has antioxidant and antiproliferative activity in cancer.
S9425 Trifolirhizin Trifolirhizin, a natural pterocarcan flavonoid extracted from Sophora flavescens, has many pharmacological activities, such as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferation, and skin-whitening.
S9427 Tabersonine Tabersonine is a terpene indole alkaloid found in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus and shows hypotensive activity, anti-tumor activity, hypoglycemic, diuretic activity.
S9428 Brazilin Brazilin (Natural Red 24) is a red pigment obtained from the wood of the brazilwood family. It is used to dye fabric and has diverse biological activities, including neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties.
S9429 6α-Hydroxygeniposide 6α-Hydroxygeniposide, an iridoid glycoside, is a chemical constituents of Pittosporum glabratum Lindl.
S9430 Tomatidine Hydrochloride Tomatidine Hydrochloride, a natural steroidal alkaloid, possesses potent antibacterial activity and has anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages.
S9431 Dehydrocorydalin Dehydrocorydalin is an alkaloidal component isolated from Rhizoma corydalis. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects and can protect the cardiovascular system.
S9433 Tubeimoside II Tubeimoside II (Tubeimoside B), a natural triterpenoid saponin isolated from herb, show anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antitumor-promoting effects.
S9434 8-Gingerol 8-Gingerol is a bioactive ingredient of ginger root (Zingiber officinale), a medicinal plant having anti-nausea, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties and a carminative effect.
S9435 Secoxyloganin Secoxyloganin is a secoiridoids that is extensively used in synthetic and biosynthetic studies of monoterpene indole alkaloids and related natural products.
S9436 Pinoresinol dimethyl ether Pinoresinol dimethyl ether, which could be isolated from the wood of the basal tree Humbertieae, show a variety of activities as the inhibitor of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
S9437 Echinatin Echinatin is a licorice extract that displays antioxidant properties and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9438 Isosakuranetin Isosakuranetin (4'-Methylnaringenin), an O-methylated flavonoid, is the 4'-methoxy derivative of naringenin, a flavanone found in Citrus species.
S9120 Scutellarein Scutellarein (6-Hydroxyapigenin), extracted from the perennial herb Scutellaria lateriflora, has antioxidant, antitumor, anti-adipogenic, antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities
S9439 Kaurenoic acid Kaurenoic acid (kaurenoate, kaur-16-en-18-oic acid) is a natural diterpenoid found in the herbs of Croton antisyphiliticus. Kaurenoic acid has anti-inflammatory activity, the mechanisms may through inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression.
S9441 Sibiricose A5 Sibiricose A5, which could be isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Polygalae Radix, shows potent antioxidant activity.
S9442 Bergaptol Bergaptol (5-Hydroxypsoralen, 5-Hydroxyfuranocoumarin) is a natural furanocoumarin found in the essential oils of citrus including lemon and bergamot.Bergaptol is a potent inhibitors of debenzylation activity of CYP3A4 enzyme with an IC50 value of 24.92 μM.
S9443 Schisantherin B Schisantherin B is one bioactive of lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill which has been commonly used as a traditional herbal medicine.
S9444 Tomatine Tomatine (Lycopersicin) is a natural glycoalkaloid with fungicidal, antimicrobial, and insecticidal properties.
S9446 Dihydrokavain Dihydrokavain (Marindinin) is a kavalactone source from kava beverages used in herbal medicine to treat sleep disturbances, as well as stress and anxiety.
S9447 1F-Fructofuranosylnystose 1F-Fructofuranosylnystose is a kind of Fructooligosaccharides which are naturally occurring sugars with potentially beneficial nutritional effects.
S9503 Fraxetin Fraxetin (7,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin), found in Fraxinus rhynchophylla, shows potent antioxidant activity.
S9502 Madecassic acid Madecassic acid (Brahmic acid), a natural triterpene first isolated from C. asiatica, has diverse anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects, blocking NF-κB activation in macrophages and causing by iNOS, COX-2, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 inhibition.
S9001 Malic acid Malic acid (Hydroxybutanedioic acid, 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid) is a common, naturally occurring ingredient in many foods. It is the main acid found in apples and other fruits.
S9002 L-Fucose Fucose (6-Deoxy-L-Galactose, L-fucopyranose) is found on N-linked glycans on the mammalian, insect and plant cell surface. L-Fucose is claimed to have application in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and dietary supplements.
S9006 Perillartine Perillartine (Perilla sugar, Peryllartine) is a sweetener.
S9014 AstragalosideⅠ AstragalosideⅠ, is a bioactive saponin first isolated from the dried plant roots of the genus Astragalus, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine.
S5083 Lentinan Lentinan (A823605, Bromoduline), isolated and purified from a hot water extract of Lentinula edodes fruit bodies, is a fungal polysaccharide immunomodulator with anti-tumor effects.
S9272 Koumine Koumine, a Gelsemium alkaloid, possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and neurosteroid modulating activities.
S9273 Timosaponin BII Timosaponin BII (BII, Prototimosaponin AIII) is a steroidal saponin showing potential anti-dementia and antioxidant activity.
S9274 Isochlorogenic acid B Isochlorogenic acid B, naturally isolated from Laggera alata, has antioxidative and hepatoprotective properties.
S9275 Isoguanosine Isoguanosine (Crotonoside) inhibits FLT3 and HDAC3/6 for the treatment of AML.Isoguanosine is a naturally occurring active isomer of guanosine that is found in the seeds of Croton tiglium.
S9276 Alisol B Alisol B, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizoma, induces Bax up-regulation and nuclear translocation, the activation of initiator caspase-8 and caspase-9, and executor caspase-3, suggesting the involvement of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways.
S9277 Alisol A Alisol A is one of the major active triterpenes isolated from Rhizoma Alismatis (RA), a famous Traditional Chinese Medicine widely used for diuretic, hypolipidemic, anti-nephrolithic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic purposes.
S9278 Saikosaponin C Saikosaponin C is a triterpene saponin found in Bupleurum that exhibits antiviral and pro-angiogenic activities.
S9279 Euphorbia factor L3 Euphorbia factor L3 (5,15-Diacetyl-3-benzoyllathyrol), belonging to the lathyrane diterpenoids isolated from Caper Euphorbia Seed, shows potent cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in A549 cells.
S9280 Demethoxycurcumin Demethoxycurcumin, a natural demethoxy derivative of curcumin, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-angiogenesis properties.
S9281 Peimine Peimine (Verticine, Wanpeinine A) is a major biologically active component of Fritillaria ussuriensis, exhibits anti-inflammatory and pain suppression properties at the cellular level.
S9267 Epimedin A CHF5074 is a gamma-secretase modulator that reduces Aβ42 and Aβ40 secretion. The IC50s of CHF5074 for inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 is above 100 μmol/L.
S9268 Epmedin B Epmedin B (Epimedin B) is a component extracted from Epimedii Folium and may have antiosteoporotic activity.
S9269 Epmedin C Epmedin C (Epimedin C, Baohuoside VI), a flavonoid isolated from the herbs of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim, exhibits immunostimulatory and anticancer activities.
S9270 Dracohodin perochlorate CHF5074 is a gamma-secretase modulator that reduces Aβ42 and Aβ40 secretion. The IC50s of CHF5074 for inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 is above 100 μmol/L.
S9271 Pulchinenoside A Pulchinenoside A (Anemoside A3), a natural triterpenoid saponin, is a AMPARs and NMDAR modulator.
S9282 Isochlorogenic acid A Isochlorogenic acid A (3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid), isolated from Brazilian propolis and Suaeda glauca, exhibits hepatoprotective and cytotoxic activities.
S9283 Aristolone Aristolone, which could be extracted from essential oil of Elyonurus hensii, is likely to induce an antalgic activity.
S9284 Aloesin Aloesin (Aloe resin B) is a kind of herbal extraction form the aloe vera. It is a strong inhibitor of tyrosinase activity and up-regulates cyclin E-dependent kinase activity in vitro.
S9285 Fargesin Fargesin is a neolignan isolated from Magnolia plants. It is a potential β1AR antagonist through cAMP/PKA pathway.
S9286 Neobavaisoflavone Neobavaisoflavone, isolated from seeds of Psoralea corylifolia, exhibits inhibitory activity against DNA polymerase and platelet aggregation.
S9287 Genkwanin Genkwanin (Apigenin 7-methyl ether) is one of the major non-glycosylated flavonoids in herbs. It has a variety of pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antiplasmodial, radical scavenging, chemopreventive and inhibiting 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activities.
S9288 Casticin Casticin (Vitexicarpin), as the major active substance in Lithospermum erythrorhyzon, had been reported to mediate multiple pharmacological activities such as antioxidation, antiviral, cardiovascular protection, antineoplastic and anti-inflammation.
S9289 Astragalin Astragalin (kaempferol-3-glucoside, Kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, Kaempferol 3-D-glucoside), a flavonoid from leaves of persimmon and green tea seeds, has anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities.
S9290 Linarin Linarin (Acaciin, Buddleoside, Acacetin-7-O-rutinoside), a natural flavonoid cpompound, has pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, neuro-protective, cardioprotective and antioxidative effects.
S9291 Isopimpinellin Isopimpinellin (5,8-Dimethoxypsoralen) is a natural product synthesized by numerous plant species. It may acts as an anticarcinogen.
S9292 Dictamnine Dictamnine, a natural plant product, has been reported to have antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi.
S9293 Isoliquiritin Isoliquiritin (Neoisoliquritin) is a flavonoid glycoside compound from licorice possessing a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-depression activities.
S9294 Gelsemine Gelsemine, a principal alkaloid from Gelsemium sempervirens Ait., is a highly toxic compound and may be a glycine receptor agonist with significantly higher binding affinity for some of these receptors than its native agonist, glycine.
S9295 Dauricine Dauricine, a plant metabolite isolated from the Asian vine Menispermum dauricum, plays a variety of biological roles in the human body, from inhibiting cancer cell growth to blocking cardiac transmembrane Na+, K+, and Ca2+ ion currents.Dauricine induces apoptosis, inhibits proliferation and invasion through inhibiting NF‐κB signaling pathway in colon cancer cells.
S9296 Fraxin Fraxin (Fraxetin-8-O-glucoside), a main active component isolated from Cortex Fraxini, possesses a variety of bioactivities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-hyperuricemia and diuresis.
S9297 Kirenol Kirenol is a biologically active substance isolated from Herba Siegesbeckiae. It has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-adipogenic, and anti-arthritic activities.
S9298 Corylin Corylin, a main compound isolated from Psoralea corylifolia L. (Fabaceae), has a variety of pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, anti-proliferation, and anti-inflammatory properties.
S9300 Methylprotodioscin Methyl protodioscin, a bioactive natural compound isolated from Dioscorea collettii Makino (Dioscoreaceae), has numerous pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation, lipid-lowering, and anticancer activities.
S9301 Verbenalin Verbenalin (Verbenalol β-D-glucopyranoside, Verbenalol glucoside, Cornin), an iridoid glycoside found in Verbena officinalis, has been reported to exhibit uterine stimulant activity and demonstrated cardioprotection against experimental myocardial ischemic injury.
S9302 Polyphyllin VI Polyphyllin VI derived from Paris polyphylla possess anti-cancer activities.
S9303 Saikosaponin B2 Saikosaponin B2 is a naturally occurring terpenoid that efficiently inhibits hepatitis C virus entry.
S9304 Platycodin D Platycodin D, the main saponin isolated from Chinese herb Platycodonis Radix, exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, cholesterol-lowering and neuroprotective properties.
S9305 Toosendanin Toosendanin, a triterpenoid extracted from Melia toosendan Sieb et Zucc, possesses broad biological actions from blocking neurotransmission and antibotulism to inducing cell differentiation and apoptosis.
S9307 Shanzhiside methyl ester Shanzhiside methylester is a principle effective iridoid glycoside of L. rotata and serves as a small molecule glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist.
S9308 Pulsatilla saponin D Pulsatilla saponin D (SB365), isolated from the root of Pulsatilla koreana, targets c-Met and exerts antiangiogenic and antitumor activities.
S9309 Micheliolide Micheliolide, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Michelia compressa and Michelia champaca, inhibits various inflammatory response and may serve as a neuroprotective agent in neuroinflammation-related neurodegenerative disorders.
S9311 Germacrone Germacrone, a major activity component found in Curcuma zedoaria oil product, shows anti-inflammatory, antiandrogenic, and antimicrobial activities.
S9312 Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride (Kuromanin, Chrysontemin, Glucocyanidin) is a natural product with anti-oxidant and neuroprotective effects.
S9313 Atractylenolide III Atractylenolide III, a major component of Atractylodes rhizome, has anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenesis activities.
S9314 Atractylenolide II Atractylenolide II (AT-II, Asterolide, 2-Atractylenolide), a major sesquiterpenoids isolated from the dried Rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala, shows a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities, for example, against insomnia and anxiety, neuroprotective, platelet activation and anti-cancer effect.
S9315 Praeruptorin A Praeruptorin A, a naturally existing pyranocumarin, is isolated from the dried root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn. Praeruptorin A inhibits p38/Akt-c-Fos-NFATc1 signaling and PLCγ-independent Ca2+ oscillation. Praeruptorin A can significantly upregulates multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 expression via the constitutive androstane receptor-mediated pathway in vitro, and this should be taken as an herb-drug interaction.
S9316 Polyphyllin II Polyphyllin II, a natural compound extracted from Rhizoma of Paris polyphyllin, shows hemolytic activity.
S9317 Forsythoside A Forsythoside A, one of the main active ingredients in Forsythiae fructus, has been shown to possess anti-bacterial and immunomodulatory properties.
S9318 (20R)-Ginsenoside Rh1 (20R)-Ginsenoside Rh1, isolated from the root of Panax Ginseng, exhibits various pharmacological activities including vasorelaxation, antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and anticancer.
S9319 Cryptochlorogenic acid Cryptochlorogenic acid (4-Caffeoylquinic acid, 4-O-Caffeoylquinic acid), a phenolic acid found in various plant species, including Artemisia, honeysuckle, and H. sabdariffa, possesses antioxidant properties.
S9322 Neodiosmin
S9324 Alnustone Alnustone, a naturally occuring compound found in the rhizomes of Curcuma xanthorrhiza, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic and antiemetic activities.
S9329 Orcinol Orcinol (5-Methylresorcinol; 3,5-ToluenediolOrcin; 5-Methyl-1,3-benzenediol; 3,5-Dihydroxytoluene), occurs in many species of lichens including Roccella tinctoria and Lecanora, exhibits antimutagenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, radical-scavenging effects.
S9343 Sequoyitol Sequoia alcohol (Sequoyitol) is isolated from Taxus natural organic compounds, it can be used to treat diabetes and other indications.
S9347 Allitol Allitol (Allodulcitol) is a rare polyol found in nature that is useful not only as a sweetener, but also as the raw material for production of chemical compounds.
S9348 D-(+)-Trehalose Anhydrous Trehalose is a non-reducing sugar. It is thought to provide plants and animals with the ability to withstanding periods of dehydration.
S9350 Ethyl 4-Methoxycinnamate Ethyl 4-Methoxycinnamate (Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate, 4-Methoxycinnamic Acid Ethyl Ester), a natural product found in K. galanga and C. zedoaria extracts, has anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, antifungal, larvicidal, and analgesic activities.
S9354 Oxalic acid Oxalic acid (Ethanedioic acid, Wood bleach) is a strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables.
S5636 Methyl furan-2-carboxylate Methyl furan-2-carboxylate (Methyl pyromucate, Methyl 2-furoate) is found in cocoa and cocoa products. It is used in food flavouring and preparation of sesquiterpene lactone.
S3814 Tubeimoside I Tubeimoside I (Lobatoside H, TBMS1), a triterpenoid saponin, isolated from the tubers of Bolbostemma paniculatum, shows potent antitumor and antitumor-promoting effects.
S8068 Chaetocin Chaetocin, a natural product from Chaetomium species, is a histone methyltransferase inhibitor with IC50 of 0.8 μM, 2.5 μM and 3 μM for dSU(VAR)3-9, mouse G9a and Neurospora crassa DIM5, respectively. Chaetocin is an anticancer agent and inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR).
S3790 Methyl gallate Methyl Gallate (Methylgallate, Gallic acid methyl ester, Gallicin) is a plant polyphenol with antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9188 Magnoflorine chloride Magnoflorine (Escholine, Thalictrine, Corytuberine methochloride), isolated from the rhizome of Sinomenium acutum and from Pachygone ovata, is usually used as an anxiolytic chemical with anti-oxidant, α-tyrosinase inhibitory and anti-inflammationary activities.
S9189 Oroxin A Oroxin A (Baicalein 7-O-glucoside), an active component isolated from the herb Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz, activates PPARγ and inhibits α-glucosidase, exerting antioxidant activity.
S9190 Oroxin B Oroxin B (Hypocretin-2), one of flavonoids isolated from traditional Chinese herbal medicine Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent, selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress in malignant lymphoma cells and has antioxidant activity. Oroxin B significantly inhibits proliferation and induce apoptosis, which may be strongly associated with the inhibiting COX-2/VEGF and PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in SMMC-7721 cells, Oroxin B potentially be used as a novel therapeutic agent for liver cancer.COX-2, VEGF, PI3K, and p-AKT expression levels is found to be downregulated, while PTEN was upregulated after Oroxin B treatment.
S9191 Loganic acid Loganic acid (Loganate) is a naturally occurring iridoid monoterpeneglusoside involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids in Vinca rosea.
S9194 Toddalolactone Toddalolactone, a natural coumarin, inhibits the activity of recombinant human Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in a dose-dependent manner, yielding an IC50 value of 37.31 ± 3.23 μM.
S9195 Maltotetraose Maltotetraose, found in many foods, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as oligosaccharides.
S9196 Calceolarioside B Calceolarioside B (Nuomioside A), found in the herbs of Ajuga becumbens Thunb., has anti-proliferation property.
S9199 Pseudoginsenoside F11 Pseudoginsenoside F11, a natural product found in American ginseng but not in Asian ginseng, is a novel partial PPARγ agonist.
S9200 Pneumocandin B0 Pneumocandin B0 (L-688786) is a natural product and a key intermediate in the synthesis of the antifungal agent.
S9203 Notopterol Notopterol is a kind of furanocoumarin that possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anticancer activities.
S9204 Oroxylin A Oroxylin A (6-Methoxybaicalein) is a flavonoid isolated from Scutellaria root that exhibits multiple pharmacological activities, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-tumor properties.
S9205 Hydroxygenkwanin Hydroxygenkwanin (7-O-Methylluteolin), a natural flavonoid compound, has anti-oxidant ability and can act as tissue factor (TF) inhibitor to prevent thrombosis.
S9206 Hydroprotopine Hydroprotopine (W1171) is a kind of natural herbal extract.
S9514 Rotundic acid Rotundic acid (Rutundic acid), a natural compound, exhibit cytotoxic activities toward human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), malignant melanoma (A375), SCLC (NCI-H446), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon cancer (HT-29) cell lines.RA induces cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, and apoptosis by modulating the AKT/mTOR and MAPK pathways.
S9207 Gypenoside XVII Gypenoside XVII (GP-17, Gynosaponin S), a ginsenoside found in Panax species, has neuroprotective effects and is widely used to prevent cardiovascular disease.
S9208 Ginsenoside Rb3 Ginsenoside Rb3, extracted from the plant Panax ginseng, plays important roles in cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Ginsenoside Rb3 (0.1-10 μM) is tested for inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)-induced nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) luciferase reporter activity using a human kidney 293T cell-based assay. Ginsenoside Rb3 shows the significant activity with an IC50 of 8.2 μM. Ginsenoside Rb3 also inhibits the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) messenger Ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in a dose-dependent manner after HepG2 cells have been treated with TNF-α (10 ng/mL).
S9209 Tritetradecanoin Tritetradecanoin, found in Myristica fragrans Houtt., is used as an antiadhesion agent and lubricating agent.
S9210 Ginsenoside Rk1 Ginsenoside Rk1, one of the main elements of Sung Ginseng, has been confirmed as a new endothelial barrier enhancer recently and has anti-cancer activity.
S9211 Eriocitrin Eriocitrin (eriodictyol 7-rutinoside, Eriodictyol glycoside, Eriodictioside) is a flavone glycoside mainly found in lemon with antioxidant activity.
S9213 Jujuboside A Jujuboside A, isolated from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, exerts anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory activities, and reduces the cell apoptosis.
S9214 Jujuboside B Jujuboside B, one of the saponins isolated from the seeds of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa, is used in traditional chinese medicine for treating cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases.
S9215 Pinoresinol diglucoside Pinoresinol diglucoside, one of the major lignans isolated from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver bark, has various pharmacological functions, including antihypertension and prevention of osteoporosis.
S9216 Esculentoside A Esculentoside A, isolated from the Chinese herb phytolacca esculenta, possesses a broad inhibitory effect on a panel of pro-inflammation molecules with less toxicity.
S9217 Complanatuside Complanatuside, a flavonoid compound isolated from Astragalus complanatus and Lysimachia christinae, has anti-inflammation, lipid-lowering and hepatoprotective effects.
S9219 Huperzine B Huperzine B, a natural alkaloid existed in Lycopodium plants, is a novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and has neuroprotective effects.
S9221 Ferulaldehyde Ferulaldehyde (Coniferaldehyde, Ferulyl aldehyde) is a natural intermediate of polyphenol metabolism of intestinal microflora.
S9222 Dipotassium glycyrrhizinate Glycyrrhizinate dipotassium (Neubormitin) is a widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root.
S9223 Talatisamine Talatisamine, a delphinine type alkaloid extracted from Aconitum talassicum, is a newly identified K+ channel blocker with hypotensive and antiarrhythmic activities.
S9224 Dehydroandrographolide Succinate Dehydroandrographolide succinate (DAS), extracted from herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata (Burm f) Nees, has antibacterial and antiviral effects.
S9226 Steviolbioside Steviolbioside (CCRIS-6025), a natural sweetener, exhibits moderate antituberculosis activity against M. tuberculosis strain H37RV in vitro.
S9228 Schisandrin C Schisandrin C, a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill, has many characteristics including anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, and anti-oxidation.
S9229 Linderane Linderane, isolated from Lindera strychnifolia vill., is an indirect PDE3 activator and possesses multiple biological effects, including superoxide anion radical-scavenging and antioxidative activity and protective activity against gastritis, gastric ulcers and backache.
S9230 Vaccarin Vaccarin, a major flavonoid glycoside found in Semen vaccariae, exhibits extensive biological activities including vascular endothelial cell protective effects.
S9231 Schisanhenol Schisanhenol (Gomisin K3) is a compound derived from the fruit of a traditional Chinese herb Schisandra rubriflora, exhibiting strong inhibition toward UGT2B7.
S9232 Crocin II Crocin II (Crocin B, Crocetin gentiobiosylglucosyl ester, Tricrocin), a carotenoid chemical compound that is found in the flowers crocus and gardenia, is an antioxidant and neural protective agent.
S9233 Imperialine Imperialine (Sipeimine, Kashmirine) is an alkaloid found in the bulbs of species of the genus Fritillaria.
S9234 Schaftoside Schaftoside, a bioactive compound found in the Herba Desmodii Styracifolii, exhibits pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity. Schaftoside inhibits the expression of TLR4 and Myd88. Schaftoside also decreases Drp1 expression and phosphorylation, and reduces mitochondrial fission.
S9235 Didymin Didymin (Neoponcirin, Isosakuranetin-7-O-rutinoside) is a citrus-derived natural compound that kills p53 wild-type as well as drug-resistant p53-mutant neuroblastoma cells in culture. It possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammation and anti-cancer properties.
S9237 Berberrubine Berberrubine (Beroline, 9-Berberoline), an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from many medicinal plants, possesses diverse pharmacological activities, including glucose-lowering, lipid-lowering, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor effects.
S9238 Polygalic acid Polygalic acid (Senegenic acid), a triterpenoid saponin, shows expectorant, emetic and stimulant effects.
S9239 Isocorynoxeine Isocorynoxeine (7-Isocorynoxeine), a major alkaloid found in Uncaria rhynchophylla, exhibits wide beneficial effects on the cardiovascular and cardiocerebral vascular systems. Isocorynoxeine suppress 5-HT2A receptor-mediated current response with IC50 of 72.4 μM.
S9240 Isofraxidin Isofraxidin (6,8-Dimethoxyumbelliferone), a bioactive coumarin compound isolated from the functional foods Siberian ginseng and Apium graveolens, is an anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory agent.
S9242 Narirutin Narirutin (Naringenin-7-O-rutinoside, Isonaringin), a flavanone abundant in citrus fruits, possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.
S9243 Protosappanin B Protosappanin B (FT-0689654, Q-100961), extracted from Lignum Sappan, possesses anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation properties.
S9244 8-O-acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester 8-O-acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester (Barlerin, ND01), isolated from the leaves of Lamiophlomis rotata Kudo, promotes angiogenesis, which leads to the improvement of functional outcome after stroke.8-O-Acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester can inhibts NF-κB.
S9245 Phellodendrine chloride Phellodendrine chloride, isolated from the Phellodrndron amurensis, exhibits immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9246 Tiliroside Tiliroside, a glycosidic flavonoid, possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and hepatoprotective activities.
S9247 Isoliensinine Isoliensinine is an alkaloid produced by the edible plant Nelumbo nucifera. It possesses anti-cancer, anti-fibrosis, anti-proliferative, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9248 Homoorientin Homoorientin (Isoorientin, Luteolin-6-C-glucoside) is a flavone that acts as a radical scavenger and an antineoplastic agent.
S9249 Securinine Securinine, a major natural alkaloid product from the root of the plant Securinega suffruticosa, acts as a γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptor antagonist.
S9250 Isosilybin Isosilybin (Silymarin, Silybin B, Isosilybinin, Q-100795) is a flavanolignan found in the extract of S. marianum fruits with antioxidant and anticancer activities. Isosilybin inhibits CYP3A4 induction with an IC50 of 74 μM.
S9251 Oxypeucedanin Oxypeucedanin is a major coumarin aglycone that can be extracted from Ostericum koreanum. It is a kind of open-channel blocker of the hKv1.5 channel.
S9252 Corydaline Corydaline is a bioactive alkaloid with various anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-allergic, and anti-nociceptive activities found in the medicinal herb Corydalis Tubers.
S9253 Coixol Coixol (6-methoxybenzoxazolone, MBOA) acts as a central muscle relaxant with an anti-convulsant effect.
S9254 Skimmin Skimmin is one of the major pharmacologically active molecules present in Hydrangea paniculata, a medical herb used in the traditional Chinese medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent.
S9255 Isoscopoletin Isoscopoletin (7-Methoxyesculetin) is a member of the class of compounds known as hydroxycoumarins. Isoscopoletin can be found in coriander and eggplant, which makes isoscopoletin a potential biomarker for the consumption of these food products.
S9256 Isobavachin Isobavachin is a flavonoid compound obtained from Psoralea Corylifolia Linn.
S9257 Acetylshikonin Acetylshikonin is a biologically active compound with anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activity, which is isolated from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizoma. It is a novel general P450 inhibitor with IC50 values of 1.4-4.0 μM for all tested P450s.
S9258 (+)-Isocorynoline Isocorynoxeine, a major bioactive tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids found in Uncaria rhynchophylla, exhibits a dose-dependent inhibition of 5-HT2A receptor-mediated current response with an IC50 of 72.4 μM and shows various beneficial effects, including lowering blood pressure, vasodilatation, and protection against ischemia-induced neuronal damage.
S9260 Nodakenin Nodakenin ((+)-Marmesinin), a coumarin compound, acts as an AChE inhibitor that inhibits AChE activity in a dosedependent manner with an IC50 value of 84.7 μM.
S9265 7-Epitaxol 7-Epitaxol (7-Epipaclitaxel) is the major derivative of taxol found in cells. Taxol (paclitaxel) is a well-known natural-source cancer drug.
S9266 Ginsenoside Rc Ginsenoside Rc, isolated from Panax ginseng, may exert various activities including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, and anti-diabetic effects.
S9186 Liensinine perchlorate Liensinine is the active constituent of plumula nelambinis with anti-hypertension.
S9187 Phillygenin Phillygenin (Sylvatesmin), a bioactive intergradient in Osmanthus fragrans, has anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity and antipyretic activities. It could reduce blood lipid levels and low density lipoprotein.
S9517 Liriope muscari baily saponins C Liriope muscari baily saponins C, extracted from the roots of Liriope muscari (Decne.) Baily, induces autophagy and has an anti-thrombotic activity.
S9201 Levistilide A Levistilide A (Diligustilide), a natural compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, is a potential P-gp modulator and used for treating cancer.
S9512 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid (Cynarin; Cinarine; 1,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid) is a phenolic compound found in artichoke. It shows antioxidant and choleretic properties and is a potential immunosuppressive agent.
S9114 Polyphyllin I Polyphyllin I, a small molecular monomer extracted from Rhizoma of Paris polyphyllin, is used in the treatment of infectious disease and cancer. Polyphyllin I inhibits proliferation and induces apoptotic cell death in U251 cells. Polyphyllin I is an activator of the JNK signaling pathway with a potential anti-glioma effect.
S9115 Wogonoside Wogonoside (Oroxindin, Wogonin 7-O-glucuronide, Glychionide B), the main flavonoid component derived from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, displays anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anticancer chemotherapeutic activities.
S9116 Chikusetsusaponin IVa Chikusetsusaponin IVa (Calenduloside F), a major active ingredient of triterpenoid saponins, has numerous pharmacological activities, including cytotoxic activity against various cancer cells, anti-inflammatory activity, prevention of dental caries and induction of genta-micin nephrotoxicity. Chikusetsusaponin IVa is a novel AMPK activator.
S9117 (20S)Ginsenoside Rg2 (20S)Ginsenoside Rg2, a constituent existing in red ginseng, has been reported to exert strong inhibitory action on various cancer cells.
S9119 Leonuride Leonuride (Ajugol), an active alkaloid that is extracted from Traditional Chinese Medicine Herba leonuri, is a terpene glycoside that can be used for some gynecological disease.
S9121 Irigenin Irigenin, an O-methylated isoflavone, can be isolated from the rhizomes of the leopard lily (Belamcanda chinensis), and Iris kemaonensis.
S9122 Tectorigenin Tectorigenin (TEC) is an isoflavone isolated from various medicinal plants, such as Pueraria thunbergiana Benth, Belamcanda chinensis, and Iris unguicularis. It has been reported to exert pharmacological actions, including antitumor and antibacterial effects, free radical neutralization, and selective estrogen receptor modulation.
S9123 Eriodictyol Eriodictyol, a flavonoid extracted from yerba santa, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and taste-modifying properties.
S9125 Apigetrin Apigetrin (Cosmetin, Cosmosioside, Thalictiin, Cosmosin, Apigenin 7-glucoside), a flavonoid found in many plant leaves and seeds, has been known to possess antimutagenic, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
S9126 Schizandrol B Schizandrol B (Gomisin A, Besigomsin, Wuweizi alcohol B, Gamma-Schisandrin), extracted from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill., exhibits potent antitumor activities.
S9127 Carnosol Carnosol is a naturally occurring phenolic diterpene found in rosemary. It has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities.
S9128 Isoacteoside Isoacteoside, a phenylethanoid isolated from Monochasma savatieri Franch. ex Maxim., is an anti‐inflammatory herb widely used in traditional Chinese medicine.
S9129 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rh1 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rh1 (Prosapogenin A2, Sanchinoside B2, Sanchinoside Rh1) is one of major bioactive compounds extracted from red ginseng, which has been increasingly used for enhancing cognition and physical health worldwide. It exhibits potent characteristics of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory effects, and positive effects on the nervous system. Ginsenoside Rh1 inhibits the expression of PPAR-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β.
S9130 Rubusoside Rubusoside is a natural sweetener and a solubilizing agent with antiangiogenic and antiallergic properties.
S9131 Punicalagin Punicalagin, a major ellagitannin found in pomegranate extracts, has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects.
S9132 Harpagide Harpagide, isolated from the secondary roots of Harpagophytum procumbens (Hp), has valuable medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic and potential antirheumatic effects.
S9133 Chicoric acid Chicoric acid (Dicaffeoyltartaric acid), identified in many plants, exerts various properties include anti-cancer, anti-obesity, antiviral, and anti-diabetic effects.
S9134 Spinosin Spinosin (Flavoayamenin), a flavone-C-glycoside, is a bioactive ingredient isolated from a traditional Chinese herb Zizyphi Spinosi Semen. It acts as a plant metabolite and an anxiolytic drug.
S9135 Artemisic acid Artemisic acid (Artemisinic acid), an amorphane sesquiterpene isolated from Artemisia annua L., has a variety of pharmacological activity, such as antimalarial activity, anti-tumor activity, antipyretic effect, antibacterial activity, allelopathy effect and anti-adipogenesis effect.
S9136 Neochlorogenic acid Neochlorogenic acid (Neochlorogenate, 5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid) is a natural polyphenolic compound found in some types of dried fruits and a variety of other plant sources such as peaches. It shows antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and antipyretic activities and exerts neuroprotective effects through the inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathways in activated microglia.
S9137 Erianin Erianin, a natural product derived from Dendrobium chrysotoxum, has been used as an analgesic in traditional Chinese medicine and is a potential anti-tumor agent. Erianin can inhibit IDO-induced tumor angiogenesis.
S9138 Picfeltarraenin IA Picfeltarraenin IA is an AChE inhibitior, and an potential PI3K and EGFR inhibitor. It also acts as an inhibitor on both the classical and alternative pathways of the complement system.
S9141 Berbamine Berbamine (BA), a traditional Chinese medicines extracted from Berberis amurensis (xiaoboan), is a novel inhibitor of bcr/abl fusion gene with potent anti-leukemia activity and also an inhibitor of NF-κB. Berbamine (BA) induces apoptosis in human myeloma cells and inhibits the growth of cancer cells by targeting Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII).
S9143 Ammonium Glycyrrhizate Ammonium glycyrrhizate (Glycamil, Glycyrram) is an ammonium salt extract isolated from licorice root and is commonly used as a flavoring agent and is also used in fragrances, and skin and hair care products.
S9144 Solasonine Solasonine, a natural glycoalkaloid compound, has anti-inflammation and anti-tumor properties.
S9145 Solamargine Solamargine, a bioactive steroidal alkaloid isolated from Solanum aculeastrum, induces potent, non-selective cytotoxicity and P-gp inhibition.
S9146 Anwuligan Anwuligan (Macelignan), a natural compound isolated from Myristica fragrans Houtt, has antimicrobial and anticariogenic activity against Streptococcus mutans and other streptococcus species. It also shows antioxidant, free radical scavenging, and neuroprotective activities.
S9148 Peiminine Peiminine (Verticinone, Zhebeinone, Raddeanine), a biologically active component extracted from Fritillaria walujewii Regel, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory, antitussive, and expectorant effects. It induces autophagic cell death thus represses colorectal carcinoma tumor growth.
S9149 Benzoylpaeoniflorin Benzoylpaeoniflorin, a natural product isolated from Chinese paeony root, could inhibit COX-1 and COX-2 in vitro.
S9150 Daurisoline Daurisoline, a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the rhizomes of Menispermum dauricum, is a potent autophagy blockers with antiarrhythmic effects.
S9151 Praeruptorin E Praeruptorin E, isolated from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn., is a cardiotonic agent with selective cardiac calcium channel agonistic effect.
S9152 Epiberberine Epiberberine, a natural protoberberine alkaloid, is a potent inhibitor against both ureases with IC50 values of 3.0±0.01μM for HPU (ureases from Helicobacter pylori) and 2.3±0.01μM for JBU (ureases from jack bean).
S9153 Betulinicaldehyde Betulinicaldehyde (Betulinal, Betunal), isolated from the bark of tectona grandis., is an anti-tumor agent.
S9154 Chelidonine Chelidonine (Stylophorin, Helidonine), a major bioactive, isoquinoline alkaloid ingredient in Chelidonium majus, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.
S9155 Aurantio-obtusin Aurantio-obtusin is a natural effective compound isolated from Semen Cassiae, which possesses hypotensive and hypolipidemic effects.
S9156 Chonglou Saponin VII Chonglou Saponin VII (Dioscinin, Polyphyllin-VII, Paris saponin-VII), a kind of steroidal saponins from Chonglou (Rhizoma Paridis Chonglou), inhibits EMT and reduces the invasion of ovarian cancer cells via the GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.
S9157 Neoandrographolide Neoandrographolide, a principle diterpenoids isolated from A. paniculata, exerts a wide range of therapeutic actions, including immunosuppressant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative stress, antipyretic, anti-edematogenic, and anti-nociceptive activities.
S9159 momordin-Ic Momordin Ic, a natural triterpenoid saponin, is a novel SENP1 (SUMO-specific protease 1) inhibitor that inhibited proliferation of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
S5742 Deferoxamine mesylate (Ba 33112) Deferoxamine mesylate (Ba 33112, Desferrioxamine B, DFOM, NSC 644468) is the mesylate salt of Deferoxamine, which forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent. Deferoxamine is a ferroptosis inhibitor that stabilizes HIF-1α expression and improves HIF-1α transactivity in hypoxic and hyperglycemic states in vitro. Deferoxamine decreases beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and induces autophagy.
S9160 Ziyu-glycoside I Ziyuglycoside I is one of the major active ingredients in Sanguisorba officinalis and could be used as an active ingredient for cosmetics.
S9161 Ziyuglycoside II Ziyuglycoside II is an active compound of Sanguisorba officinalis L. that has anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antibiosis, and homeostasis properties.
S9162 Rubimaillin Rubimaillin (Mollugin), found in the Chinese medical plant Rubia cordifola, is a dual inhibitor of acetyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) and acetyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2), but is more selective for the ACAT2 isozyme.
S9163 Rhapontigenin Rhapontigenin (Protigenin), produced from rhapontin isolated from a methanol extract of Rheum undulatum roots by enzymatic transformation, is a selective inactivator of cytochrome P450 1A1 (IC50 = 400 nM).
S9164 Curdione Curdione, one of the major components of Curcuma zedoaria, shows an excellent antithrombotic activity in vivo.
S9165 Poncirin Poncirin (Isosakuranetin-7-neohesperidoside), extracted from trifoliate orange, has anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9167 Columbin Columbin, a diterpenoid furanolactone, is a potential anti-inflammatory drug.
S9168 Periplogenin Periplogenin (Desoxostrophanthidin, 5-beta-Hydroxydigitoxigenin), isolated from Lagenaria siceraria, has potent anti-psoriatic effects in vitro and in vivo.
S9171 Harpagoside Harpagoside, a natural product found in the plant Harpagophytum procumbens, has potent anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.
S9172 Phellodendrine Phellodendrine, a quaternary ammonium alkaloid extracted from the dried bark of Phellodendrom chinensis Schneid and Phellodendrom amurense Rupr, has the effect of suppressing cellular immune response, reducing blood pressure and antinephritis.
S9173 Sec-O-Glucosylhamaudol Sec-O-Glucosylhamaudol (Hamaudol 3-glucoside) is one of the major bioactive compounds of the Saposhnikoviae Radix.
S9174 Xanthotoxol Xanthotoxol (8-Hydroxypsoralen, 8-Hydroxypsoralene, 8-Hydroxyfuranocoumarin, Psoralen), a biologically active linear furocoumarin found in a large number of plants, shows strong pharmacological activities as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, 5-HT antagonistic, and neuroprotective effects.
S9175 Macranthoidin A Macranthoidin A, found in the herbs of Lonicera japonica Thunb., has anti-inflammation activity.
S9176 Pimpinellin Pimpinellin is a furocoumarin that acts as antagonist of proteins with GABA receptor activity.
S9177 Gypenoside XLIX Gypenoside XLIX, a naturally occurring gynosaponin, is a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha activator.
S9178 Sinapine thiocyanate Sinapine thiocyanate is the thiocyanate salt form of Sinapine, which shows favorable biological activities such as antioxidant and radio-protective activities.
S9179 Catharanthine hemitartrate Catharanthine hemitartrate is the starting material for the synthesis of the antitumor drugs vinblastine and vincristine.
S9180 Tussilagone Tussilagone, isolated from the flower of buds of Tussilago farfara (Compositae), is a sesquiterpenoid that is used as a traditional oriental medicine for asthma and bronchitis. It shows anti-inflammatory activity in in vitro studies.
S9181 Periplocin Periplocin (Periplocoside), extracted from the traditional herbal medicine cortex periplocae, has cardiac and anticancer activity. Periplocin could significantly boost proliferation, migration and stimulate collagen production in fibroblast L929 cells, which is dependent on activation of Src/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways mediated by Na/K-ATPase, and thus promoting wound healing.
S9182 Crebanine Crebanine, an aporphine alkaloid isolated from the crude hexane extract of the dried tuber of Stephania venosa, exhibits anti-cancer effects.
S9183 Ruscogenin Ruscogenin, a major steroidal sapogenin of traditional Chinese herb Radix Ophiopogon japonicus, has been reported to exert significant anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic activities.
S9184 Forsythoside B Forsythoside B is a phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from the leaves of Lamiophlomis rotata Kudo, a Chinese folk medicinal plant. Forsythoside B has potent neuroprotective effects and has anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and antisepsis properties. Forsythoside B could inhibit TNF-alpha, IL-6, IκB and modulate NF-κB.
S9185 Nitidine Chloride Nitidine Chloride, a benzophenanthridine alkaloid found in species of the genus Zanthoxylum, has an anti-malarial activity.
S9455 Isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperoside Isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperoside is the major active substance of Puhuang, a traditional herb medicine widely used in clinical practice to tackle many chronic diseases. It has significant biological and pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, antiatherogenic and antimicrobial effects.
S9511 Crocin I Crocin-I, a major member of the crocin family, has antidepressant activity and ameliorates the disruption of lipid metabolism and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota induced by chronic corticosterone in mice.
S9515 Polyphyllin VII Polyphyllin VII (Y-0166), the the main member of polyphyllin family, shows strong anticancer activity against several carcinomas, including lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, cervical cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and osteosarcoma.
S5129 D-Aspartic acid D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp, Aminosuccinic acid, asparagic acid, asparaginic acid) is an endogenous amino acid occurring in several tissues and cells of both invertebrates and vertebrates. It can regulate testosterone synthesis and may act on a stimulatory receptor (NMDA).
S9055 Salvianolic acid A Salvianolic acid A (Dan Phenolic Acid A), a water-soluble compound extracted from Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), is an antioxidant and free radical scavenging compound that also acts as an inhibitor of the protein-protein interaction mediated by SH2 domains of Src-family kinases Src and Lck.
S9052 Auraptene Auraptene (7-geranyloxycoumarin) is a natural coumarin derived from citrus plants and possesses valuable pharmacological properties, including anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antihelicobacter, antigenotoxic, and neuroprotective effects. Auraptene inhibits matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) as well as key inflammatory mediators, including IL-6, IL-8 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-5(CCL5).
S9045 Triptophenolide Triptophenolide (Hypolide), derived from Tripterygium wilfordii, is a pan-antagonist for wild-type and mutant androgen receptors with the IC50 values of 260 nM for AR-WT, 480 nM for AR-F876L, 388 nM for AR-T877A, and 437 nM for W741C+T877A.
S9061 Hydroxy safflor yellow A Hydroxy safflor yellow A, a monomer extracted from Carthamus tinctorius L., possesses various kinds of bio-activities, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory actions, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-tumor and anti-myocardial injury effects.
S9062 4-Hydroxyisoleucine 4-Hydroxyisoleucine, an atypical branched-chain amino acid derived from fenugreek, has effects on the glucose and lipid metabolism, stimulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion and reduces insulin resistance in muscle and/or liver.
S9063 Harringtonine Harringtonine is a natural cephalotaxine alkaloid that inhibits protein biosynthesis. It also exhibits antiviral and anticancer activities.
S9064 Trilobatin Trilobatin (P-Phlorizin), a natural flavonoid lipid molecule, is an HIV-1 entry inhibitor targeting the HIV-1 Gp41 envelope and exihibits anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect.
S9065 Songorine Songorine, a ubiquitous alkaloid in the genus Aconitum, is a novel antagonist of the GABAA receptor in rat brain and has antiarrhythmic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, regenerative and CNS-modulating properties.
S9066 Specnuezhenide Specnuezhenide (Nuezhenide), one of the main ingredients of Chinese medicine, has anti-angiogenic and vision improvement effects.
S9067 Pseudoprotodioscin Pseudoprotodioscin is a steroidal saponin from plants and exhibits anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Pseudoprotodioscin inhibits SREBP1/2 and microRNA 33a/b levels and reduces the gene expression regarding the synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides.
S9068 Trillin Trillin (Disogluside, Diosgenin glucoside) is an active ingredient isolated from Trillium tschonoshii Maxim and acts as a potential anti-inflammatory drug for chronic hepatic inflammation.
S9069 Jatrorrhizine chloride Jatrorrhizine chloride (Neprotine, Yatrorhizine) is the hydrochloride salt form of jatrorrhizine, which is an inhibitor of AChE with IC50 of 872 nM and demonstrates >115-fold selectivity for AChE over BuChE.
S9070 Isoxanthohumol Isoxanthohumol is one of the most important prenylflavonoids found in hops. It exhibits an antiproliferative activity against human breast cancer cell lines, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer cells. Isoxanthohumol shows an antiviral activity towards herpes viruses (HSV1 and HSV2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV).
S9072 Sweroside Sweroside, a bioactive herbal ingredient isolated from Fructus Corni, exhibits diverse biological activities, such as anti-fungal, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor effects.
S9073 Lithospermoside Lithospermoside (Griffonin), extracted from the roots of Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum and L.officinale (Borginaceae), and Thalictrum rugosum and T. dasycarpum (Ranunculaceae), has anti-oxidant, anti-tumor promoting activities.
S9074 Buddlejasaponin IVb Buddlejasaponin IVb (Saikosaponin 1b), a major component of Pleurospermum kamtschaticum, exerts anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects against cancer cells.
S9075 Mulberroside A Mulberroside A, isolated from the ethanol extract of Morus alba roots, is widely employed as an active ingredient in cosmetic products due to its anti-tyrosinase and anti-oxidant activities. Mulberroside A decreases the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 and inhibits the activation of NALP3, caspase-1 and NF-κB and the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38.
S9076 Typhaneoside Typhaneoside is a flavonoid glycoside plant extract that has an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human umbilical arterial smooth muscle cell(HUASMC).
S9077 Plantamajoside Plantamajoside (Y0160, C10485), a hydroxycinnamic acid, is used as a biomarker in chemotaxonomical studies, and is a compound with numerous biological applications and considerable pharmacological potential.
S9078 Epigoitrin Epigoitrin (Goitrin, BA-51-090278), the main bioactive constituent of Radix isatidis, exerts antiviral, anticancer, and antithyroid activities.
S9079 Ginsenoside Rb2 Ginsenoside Rb2 (Ginsenoside C) is a ginsenoside found in Panax ginseng that has a role as a plant metabolite, an antiviral agent and a hypoglycemic agent.
S9080 Anhydroicaritin Anhydroicaritin (Cycloicaritin), a prenylated flavonoid natural product, is commonly recognized as one of the effective compounds of Epimedii Herba and exhibits a variety of biological activities, such as activation of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of growth, protection against beta amyloid-induced neurotoxicity, and promotion of neuronal and cardiac cellular differentiation. It is a potent inhibitor of transcription factor SREBPs.
S9081 Anemoside B4 Anemoside B4 (Pulchinenoside B4, Chinensioside A, Pulchinenoside C, Pulsatilla saponin B4), extracted from the herb of Pulsatilla chinensis (Bge.) Regel, is a potential antiviral constituent and inhibits the secretion of IL-10.
S9082 Manninotriose Manninotriose, found in many foods, is a novel and important player in the RFO metabolism of red dead deadnettle.
S9083 Rhapontin Rhapontin (Ponticin, Rhaponticin, Rhapontigenin glucoside), a stibene-type glycoside distributed widely in medicinal plants of Rheum genus (Polygonaceae), has anti-inflammatory effect and anti-proliferative activity.
S9084 Rhoifolin Rhoifolin (Rhoifoloside, Apigenin 7-O-neohesperidoside, Apigenin-7-O-rhamnoglucoside), a natural glycoside of apigenin, has been obtained from the green leaves of Rhus succedanea and possesses a variety of significant biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and anticancer effects.
S9085 Corynoline Corynoline is one of the major active components of many ethnopharmacological plants and exhibits anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, etc.
S9111 Isorhamnetin Isorhamnetin (3-methylquercetin, 3'-Methoxyquercetin, Isorhamnetol), a natural flavonol aglycon, is a tyrosinase inhibitor and has antioxidant activity.
S9112 Kaempferitrin Kaempferitrin (Lespenefril, Lespedin, Lespenephryl, Kaempferol 3,7-dirhamnoside), isolated from the leaves of Hedyotis verticillata and from Onychium japonicum, has antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9113 Ononin Ononin (Formononetin glucoside, Formononetin 7-O-glucoside) is an isoflavone glycoside with anti-inflammtory effects.
S9101 Ingenol Ingenol, a plant-derived diterpenoid, is a weak PKC activator and possesses important anticancer activity.
S9019 Quillaic acid Quillaic acid is the major aglycone of the widely studied saponins of the Chilean indigenous tree Quillaja saponaria Mol and shows strong anti-inflammatory activity.
S9020 Dihydrotanshinone I Dihydrotanshinone I (15,16-dihydrotanshinone I) is a naturally occurring compound extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, also known as Chinese sage, red sage root, and the Chinese herbal Dan Shen. It is a potent inhibitor of the HuR:RNA interaction, active in the low nanomolar range, mainly by limiting the association rate of HuR with RNA.
S9021 (20R)Ginsenoside Rg3 (20R)Ginsenoside Rg3 is extracted from traditional Chinese medicine, red ginseng. It has a role as an antioxidant and a plant metabolite.
S9022 20S-Ginsenoside Rg3 20S-Ginsenoside Rg3 is extracted from traditional Chinese medicine, red ginseng. It exihits neuromodulatory, cognition enhancing, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anti-angiogenic, and anticancer activities.
S9023 20S-Ginsenoside Rh2 20S-Ginsenoside Rh2 is a ginsenoside found in Panax species and inhibits cancer development, progression, and metastasis.
S9026 Hastatoside Hastatoside is a characteristic constituent of V. officinalis and exhibit various biological activities including sleep-promoting, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity.
S9029 Prim-o-glucosylcimifugin Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin (Cimifugin beta-D-glucopyranoside, Cimifugin 7-glucoside) is a major constituent in Radix Saposhnikovia that has been long used for the treatment of pyrexia, rheumatism, and cancer in traditional Chinese medicine. It shows potential anticancer activity. Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin downregulates the mRNA and protein expression inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner.
S9031 Gambogenic acid Gambogenic Acid, identified from Gamboge, is an inhibitor of the FGFR signaling pathway in erlotinib-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and exhibits anti-tumor effects. Gambogenic acid acts is also an effective inhibitor of EZH2 that specifically and covalently binds to Cys668 within the EZH2-SET domain, and triggers EZH2 ubiquitination.
S9034 Isochlorogenic acid C Isochlorogenic acid C (3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid; 4,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid), which is a di-O-caffeoyl derivative of chlorogenic acid, is a well-known antioxidant from herbal plants and shows anti-viral effects against EV71.
S9039 Albiflorin Albiflorin, a natural product isolated from Paeoniae Radix, is a novel 5-HT and NE reuptake inhibitor with high selectivity.
S9040 Maslinic acid Maslinic Acid (Crategolic Acid, 2α-Hydroxyoleanoic Acid), a Natural Triterpene, exerts a wide range of biological activities, i.e. antitumor, antidiabetic, antioxidant, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, antiparasitic and growth-stimulating. MA significantly suppresses the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB p65 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells.
S9054 Pectolinarin Pectolinarin is a major compound in Cirsium setidens with anti-inflammatory activity. Pectolinarin inhibits secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, as well as the production of PGE2 and NO. Pectolinarin induces apoptosis via inactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway.
S9050 Boldine Boldine, isolated from Peumus boldus, has alpha-adrenergic antagonist activities in vascular tissue with anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective, cytoprotective, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects.
S9049 Parishin A Parishin A, isolated from the rhizomes of Gastrodia elata, has good neuroprotective effects against brain disorders.
S9060 Nystose Nystose (1,1-Kestotetraose, Fungitetraose), a constituent of seeds of onions and roots of Asparagus, is a low-calorie sweetening agent for food and chewing gum.
S9092 Norisoboldine Norisoboldine (Laurelliptine), a natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, attenuates ulcerative colitis (UC) and induces the generation of Treg cells.
S9093 Nardosinone Nardosinone, isolated from Nardostachys root, an important Chinese herbal medicine, is an enhancer of nerve growth factor and possesses a wide range of pharmacological effects, including sedative, adaptogen-like, anti-depressive, anti-leukemic, anti-tumorous, and anti-trypanosomal activities.
S9097 Alisol B Acetate Alisol B acetate, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizoma, induces Bax up-regulation and nuclear translocation, the activation of initiator caspase-8 and caspase-9, and executor caspase-3, suggesting the involvement of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways.
S9098 Dehydrodiisoeugenol Dehydrodiisoeugenol, a naturally occurring lignan from Aristolochia taliscana (Aristolochiaceae), acts as a potent anti-inflammatory agent and shows various pharmacological activities, including anti-lipid peroxidation, anti-bacteial function, and hepatic drug metabolism enzyme inhibition.
S9099 Orientin Orientin (Lutexin, Luteolin-8-glucoside), isolated from medicinal plants, has various activities including anti-oxidant, anti-aging, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammation, vasodilatation and cardioprotective, antiadipogenesis, antinociceptive, radiation protective, neuroprotective, and antidepressant-like effects.
S9100 Fraxinellone Fraxinellone is a natural product isolated from the D. dasycarpus plant, which has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9102 Magnolin Magnolin is a natural compound abundantly found in Magnolia flos targeting ERK1 (IC50=87 nM) and ERK2 (IC50=16.5 nM) and inhibits cell transformation induced by tumor promoters such as epidermal growth factor (EGF).
S9103 Ginsenoside Ro Ginsenoside Ro (Chikusetsusaponin V), one of the high-abundance saponins in ginseng, is widely used as a dietary supplement and has many health-promoting effects.
S9104 Maltopentaose Maltopentaose is a substrate for energy metabolism and carbon for E. coli.
S9105 Ginsenoside CK Ginsenoside CK is a ginsenoside found in Panax species and has a role as a plant metabolite, an antineoplastic agent, a hepatoprotective agent, an anti-allergic agent and an anti-inflammatory agent.
S9108 Timosaponin A3 Timosaponin A3 (Filiferin B, AneMarsaponin A3), one of the major steroidal saponin components isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides, displays promising pharmacological activity in improving learning, memory, and antineoplastic activity.
S9056 Tuberostemonine Tuberostemonine, a natural product found in Stemona phyllantha and Stemona tuberosa, is an alkaloid and a metabolite.
S9053 Irisflorentin Irisflorentin derived from the roots of Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. is an herb which has been used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders in traditional Chinese medicine.
S9051 Asperuloside Asperuloside, an iridoid glycoside found in Herba Paederiae, is a component from traditional Chinese herbal medicine and exerts anti-inflammatory effect.
S9048 (+)-Gallocatechin (+)-Gallocatechin, found notably in green tea, has moderate affinity to the human cannabinoid receptor and acts as an antioxidant.
S9057 Sinigrin Sinigrin (Allylglucosinolate, 2-Propenylglucosinolate) is a glucosinolate found in some plants of the Brassicaceae family and exerts various activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and wound healing effects.
S9058 Gallocatechin gallate Gallocatechin galleate (GCG) is a polyphenol originally derived from a variety of sources, including green tea, coffee, safflower, and almonds.
S9086 Dihydrocapsaicin Dihydrocapsaicin (6,7-Dihydrocapsaicin, 8-Methyl-N-vanillylnonanamide, CCRIS1589), found in pepper (C. annuum), is a potential nutriceutical.
S9088 Calycosin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside Calycosin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside, an isoflavone glycoside isolated from A. mongholicus and A. membranaceus, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective biological activities.
S9089 Magnoflorine Magnoflorine (Escholin, Thalictrin), an important compound in Aristolochia, was usually used as an anxiolytic chemical. It shows significant antioxidant activity as a DPPH free radical scavenger and inhibits α-tyrosinase.
S9090 Corilagin Corilagin, discovered in many medicinal plants such as Phyllanthus speices etc., has multiple activities including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, hepatoprotective and others. It is an inhibitor of TNF-α.
S9091 10-Gingerol 10-Gingerol is a bioactive compound found in ginger with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.
S9095 Senegenin Senegenin (Tenuigenin) is a natural product from Polygala tenuifolia used in Chinese medicine with antioxidative and antiinflammatory activity.
S9096 ligustroflavone Ligustroflavone (Nuezhenoside), isolated from the leaves of Turpinia montana, shows high antioxidant capacity and is reported to be an AMPK activator.
S9106 Eleutheroside E Eleutheroside E, a principal component of Eleutherococcus senticosus (ES), has anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NF-κB and protecting against myocardial infarction.
S9107 Glycitein Glycitein is an aglycone isoflavone found in soy and red clover and exhibits a wide variety of beneficial properties, including neuroprotective, antioxidative, anticancer, anti-osteoporotic, and anti-atherosclerotic activities.
S9109 1-Kestose 1-Kestose (1F-beta-D-Fructosylsucrose), a fructooligosaccharide, could efficiently stimulates Faecalibacterium prausnitzii as well as Bifidobacteria in humans.
S9110 Morin Morin (Al-Morin, Aurantica, Calico Yellow, Toxylon pomiferum), a constituent of various woods, has a role as an antioxidant, a metabolite, an antihypertensive agent, a hepatoprotective agent, a neuroprotective agent, an anti-inflammatory agent, an antineoplastic agent, an antibacterial agent, a DNA topoisomerase inhibitor and an angiogenesis modulating agent.
S4700 4-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) 4-Aminobutyric acid (4-Aminobutanoic acid, GABA, Gamma-aminobutyric acid, Piperidic acid) is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter with central nervous system (CNS) inhibitory activity.
S5580 Arabic gum Arabic gum, derived from exudates of Acacia senegal or Acacia seyal trees, is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals and considered as a safe dietary fiber.
S3774 Dehydroandrographolide Succinate Potasium Salt Dehydroandrographolide Succinate (DAS), extracted from herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata (Burm f) Nees, is widely used for the treatment of viral pneumonia and viral upper respiratory tract infections because of its immunostimulatory, anti-infective and anti-inflammatory effect.
S9008 20-Deoxyingenol 20-Deoxyingenol is a natural compound isolated from the seeds of Euphorbia lathyris L.
S5145 Protoporphyrin IX Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is a heterocyclic organic compound, which consists of four pyrrole rings, and is the final intermediate in the heme biosynthetic pathway.
S5288 Estropipate Estropipate (Piperazine estrone sulfate, Estrone sulfate piperazine salt, Pipestrone) is a natural estrogenic substance composed of estrone sulfate and piperazine and is used mainly in menopausal hormone therapy in the treatment of menopausal symptoms.
S3917 Tetrahydrocurcumin Tetrahydrocurcumin (Tetrahydrodiferuloylmethane, Tetrahydro Curcumin), a major metabolite of curcumin, possesses strong antioxidant and cardioprotective properties.
S5675 Yamogenin Yamogenin, a sapogenin found in fenugreek, inhibits lipid accumulation through the suppression of gene expression in fatty acid synthesis in hepatocytes.
S5373 Pseudolaric Acid B Pseudolaric Acid B, a natural diterpenoid compound isolated from the root and trunk bark of Pseudolaric kaempferi Gordon, has anti-fungal and anti-fertility properties.
S5676 Zearalenone Zearalenone (F2 toxin, RAL) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin that acts by binding the estrogen receptor (ER).
S5678 trans-Zeatin-riboside Zeatin Riboside 是天然的细胞分裂素中最活跃和最普遍的形式,可促进细胞分裂,刺激芽增殖,抑制根形成,减缓衰老过程并激活基因表达和代谢活性。Zeatin Riboside 通过激动哺乳动物的 adenosine A2A receptor 起到免疫调节作用。
S5705 Raceanisodamine Raceanisodamine (7β-Hydroxyhyoscyamine) is the active ingredient of Chinese herbal extracts that has vasoactive activity used to treat acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients in bacteremic shock.
S3843 Madecassoside Madecassoside (Asiaticoside A) is the main active triterpene constituent of Centella asiatica herbs, a traditional Chinese medicine for wound healing and scar management.
S5560 Midecamycin Midecamycin (Espinomycin A, Medecamycin A1, Platenomycin B1, Rubimycin, Turimycin P3) is a naturally occuring macrolide antibiotic that acts by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis.
S5559 Tetrahydropalmatine Tetrahydropalmatine, a plant alkaloid used as an ingredient in dietary supplement products, is a potent and selective D1 receptor antagonist.
S5466 Saikosaponin A Saikosaponin A is a triterpene saponin derived from the medicinal plant, Bupleurum chinensis DC. (Umbelliferae). It has a variety of pharmacological benefits, including anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-bacterial activities.
S5622 Prohydrojasmon Prohydrojasmon is a newly launched plant growth regulator, which has jasmonic acid activity.
S5493 Atropine sulfate Atropine Sulfate (Sulfatropinol, Atropette, Tropintran) is the sulfate salt of atropine, which is a natural alkaloid anticholinergic agent and has potent antimuscarinic effects.
S5102 Stachyose Stachyose is a natural sugar found in many foods like beans and vegetables.
S4545 Warfarin Warfarin (Athrombine K, Coumadin, Coumafene, WARF 42, Zoocoumarin) is one of the most widely used anticoagulant drugs worldwide, used in the prevention of thrombosis and thromboembolism, the formation of blood clots in the blood vessels and their migration elsewhere in the body.
S3991 Ketoisophorone Ketoisophorone (4-Oxoisophorone), also known as 4-Oxoisophorone, is the major component of saffron spice.
S3992 D-(+)-Trehalose dihydrate Trehalose is a non-reducing sugar. It is thought to provide plants and animals with the ability to withstanding periods of dehydration.
S3993 Ethyl Vanillate Ethyl vanillin (Bourbonal, Ethylprotal), a vanillin analog, is a flavouring agent and a fungicidal agent that exhibits strong antioxidant activity. Ethyl Vanillate inhibits 17β-HSD2 with an IC50 1.3 µM.
S3994 Methyl Cholate Methyl Cholate (Cholic acid methyl ester) is methyl ester form of Cholic acid that is a primary bile acid mainly produced by the liver.
S3995 Guaiazulene Guaiazulene (Azulon, Vetivazulen) is a bicyclic sesquiterpene that is a constituent of some essential oils, mainly oil of guaiac and chamomile oil, which also serve as its commercial sources.
S3996 Thioctic acid Thioctic acid (DL-α-Lipoic acid) is a cyclic disulfide antioxidant that interconverts with its reduced dithiol form.
S3998 (+)-α-Lipoic acid (+)-α-Lipoic acid ((R)-(+)-α-Lipoic acid, α-Lipoic acid, Alpha-Lipoic acid), a physiological form of thioctic acid, is a strong antioxidant that relieves diabetic neuropathic symptoms. It shows superior antioxidative effects to its racemate. R(+)-α-lipoic acid is an essential cofactor of mitochondrial enzyme complexes. R(+)-α-lipoic acid inhibits NF-κB-dependent HIV-1 LTR activation.
S5157 Thymol Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol, IPMP), a naturally occurring monocyclic phenolic compound derived from Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory property in vivo and vitro.
S5161 1-Octacosanol 1-Octacosanol (n-Octacosanol, Octacosyl alcohol, Octanosol, Montanyl alcohol, Cluytyl alcohol) is a straight-chain aliphatic 28-carbon primary fatty alcohol that is used as a nutritional supplement. It is reported to possess cholesterol-lowering effects, antiaggregatory properties, cytoprotective use, and ergogenic properties.
S5172 1-Triacontanol 1-Triacontanol (n-Triacontanol, Melissyl alcohol, Myricyl alcohol) is a fatty alcohol found in plant cuticle waxes and in beeswax. It is a growth stimulant for many plants, most notably roses.
S5143 Citropten Citropten (5,7-Dimethoxycoumarin, Citroptene, Limettin, Limetin) is a natural organic compound which belongs to coumarins and derivatives class.
S5142 D-(+)-Melezitose Melezitose (D-Melezitose, (+)-Melezitose, D-melicitose, (+)-melicitose, melicitose) is a nonreducing trisaccharide sugar that is produced by many plant sap eating insects.
S5141 Pyrithioxin Pyrithioxin (Bonifen, Encefabol, Pyritinol, Vitamin B6 disulfide) is a neurotropic agent which reduces permeability of blood-brain barrier to phosphate. It has no vitamin B6 activity.
S5132 Casanthranol Casanthranol is a purified mixture of te antranol glycosides derived from Cascara sagrada.
S5128 Orsellinic acid ethyl ester Orsellinic acid (Ethyl Orsellinate), a phenolic acid, is of importance in the biochemistry of lichens, from which it can be extracted.
S4954 Djenkolic Acid Djenkolic Acid (Jengkolic acid, Djenkolate, S,S'-Methylenebiscysteine) is a naturally occurring sulfur-containing amino acid extracted from djenkol beans. It is toxic to humans, often causing kidney failure.
S4827 Manganese chloride Manganese chloride occurs in nature as the mineral. It is used as a precursor for other manganese compounds.
S4969 Tropine Tropine (Pseudotropine, 3alpha-Tropanol) is a naturally occurring tropane alkaloid that serves as an intermediate in the synthesis of a variety of bioactive alkaloids, many of which have potent neurological actions.
S4940 Maltol Maltol (Larixinic acid, Palatone, Veltol) is a naturally occurring organic compound that is flavour enhancer and flavouring agent.
S4859 TriacetonaMine TriacetonaMine (Tempidon, Tmpone, Odoratine, Vincubine), a member of the class of compounds known as piperidinones, is an extremely weak acidic compound found in green vegetables and tea.
S4863 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid (p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid, parahydroxy phenylacetate), a chemical compound found in olive oil and beer, is an intermediate used to synthesize atenolol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid.
S4864 2-Furoic acid 2-Furoic acid (2-Furancarboxylic acid, Pyromucic acid, 2-Carboxyfuran, α-furancarboxylic acid, α-furoic acid) is an organic compound most widely found in food products as a preservative and a flavoring agent.
S4949 Nonanoic acid Nonanoic acid (Pelargonic acid, Nonoic acid) is a naturally occurring fatty acid found in both vegetable and animal fats.
S4862 Squalene Squalene (Spinacene, Supraene, trans-Squalene), a naturally occurring substance found in plants, animals and humans, is a component of some adjuvants that is added to vaccines to enhance the immune response.
S4943 Isovanillin Isovanillin (5-Formylguaiacol, 3-Hydroxy-p-anisaldehyde, 3-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde) is a reversible inhibitor of aldehyde oxidase. It is largely used as pharmaceutical intermediates and also applied in food and beverage industry, synthetic fragrances, chemical.
S4951 L-Threonine L-Threonine is an essential amino acid which is in its active form. It is important for the formation of collagen, elastin, and tooth enamel, and aids liver and lipotropic function when combined with aspartic acid and methionine.
S4952 Fumaric acid Fumaric acid (Fumarate, 2-Butenedioic acid, Trans-Butenedioic acid) is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle used by cells to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from food; also a product of the urea cycle.
S4953 Usnic acid Usnic acid (Usniacin) is a furandione found uniquely in lichen that is used widely in cosmetics, deodorants, toothpaste and medicinal creams as well as some herbal products. It exhibits antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Usnic acid inhibits breast tumor angiogenesis and growth by suppressing VEGFR2-mediated AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.
S4960 Jasmone Jasmone is a natural organic compound extracted from the volatile portion of the oil from jasmine flowers.
S4957 Linalool Linalool (Phantol), a monoterpene compound commonly found as major component of essential oils of several aromatic species, is a competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors.
S4941 Farnesol Farnesol is a natural sesquiterpene alcohol that is potent in treating antimetabolic disorders, anti-inflammation, showing antioxidant, anticancer, and antibiotic effects.
S5122 Abietic Acid Abietic acid (Sylvic acid, Abietate, Rosin Acid), an abietane diterpenoid, inhibited soybean 5-lipoxygenase with an IC50 of 29.5 ± 1.29 μM.
S5126 Aleuritic Acid Aleuritic Acid (Aleuritolic acid, 9,10,16-trihydroxy-palmitic acid), a major constituent acid of lac resin (shellac), is isolated from the resin and mainly used in the perfumery industry as a starting material for the preparation of "musk" aroma compounds as well as medicinal and bioactive compounds.
S5134 D(-)-Arabinose D-Arabinose is a reducing sugar useful as a substrate in analysis of arabinose isomerases and synthesis of D-erythroascorbic acid in yeast.
S5135 Hydroferulic acid Hydroferulic acid (Dihydroferulic acid, Dihydroconiferylic acid) is classified as a member of the phenylpropanoic acids. It is slightly soluble in water and acidic.
S4828 Sodium carbonate Sodium Carbonate (Disodium carbonate, Soda Ash, Carbonic acid disodium salt) is the disodium salt of carbonic acid with alkalinizing property.
S4939 cis-Aconitic acid Cis-Aconitic acid (cis-aconitate, Achilleic acid, Citridinic acid, Equisetic acid, Pyrocitric acid) is an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle produced by the dehydration of citric acid.
S4946 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid (Pyrocatechuic acid, 3-Hydroxysalicylic acid, Hypogallic acid) is a natural phenol found in Phyllanthus acidus and in the aquatic fern Salvinia molesta, also a product of human aspirin metabolism. It is a potentially useful iron-chelating drug and has antimicrobial properties.
S4962 Agmatine sulfate Agmatine sulfate is a bioactive metabolite of the arginine amino acid. It has been shown to increase nitric oxide, reduce blood sugar levels and even increase growth hormone levels.
S4893 Cytosine Cytosine (4-Amino-2-hydroxypyrimidine, Cytosinimine) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell.
S4958 Glycocholic acid Glycocholic acid (Cholylglycine, Glycocholate) is a natural secondary bile acid involved in the emulsification of fats.
S4820 Diastase Diastase, a natural enzyme, catalyses the breakdown of starch into maltose.
S4959 Skatole Skatole (3-methylindole, Scatole) is a mildly toxic white crystalline organic compound that occurs naturally in feces. It has a fairly broad bacteriostatic effect.
S4963 Purpurin Purpurin (1,2,4-Trihydroxyanthraquinone, Hydroxylizaric acid, Verantin) is one of the natural colorants extracted from madder roots and other Rubiaceae family plants. It exhibits anti-angiogenic, antifungal, antibiotic, and antioxidative activities. Purpurin strongly inhibits the activities of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1.
S4966 4-Methylesculetin 4-methylesculetin is one of the coumarin derivatives with great anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. 4-Methylesculetin inhibits myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and reduces IL-6 level.
S4968 Cholesteryl Acetate Cholesteryl Acetate (Acebrochol, Cholesterol, Cholesterin), present in diverse fluids, organs, and foods, is a natural and normal human cholesteryl ester.
S4830 Maltose Maltose (Maltobiose, Malt Sugar, Beta-Maltose, D-Maltose), an non-essential nutrient that provides energy, is an intermediate in the intestinal digestion of glycogen and starch, and is found in germinating grains (and other plants and vegetables).
S5160 4-Methoxysalicylic acid 4-Methoxysalicylic acid (2-Hydroxy-p-anisic Acid), an arabinose derivative, is used in the synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives.
S5162 Isovanillic acid Isovanillic acid (Acide isovanillique, 3-Hydroxyanisic acid, 3-Hydroxy-p-anisic acid), a metabolite of isovanillin, is a selective inhibitor of aldehyde oxidase.
S5163 7-Methoxycoumarin 7-Methoxycoumarin (Herniarine), also known as Herniarin, is a methoxy derivative of coumarin and substrate for dealkylase. It has been used in the synthesis of anti-first-pass effect compounds and detergents.
S3950 Maltitol Maltitol (Maltisorb, 4-O-α-glucopyranosyl-D-sorbitol) is a sugar alcohol (polyol) used as a sugar substitute. It is especially useful in the production of sweets, including sugarless hard candies, chewing gum, chocolates.
S3951 Tannic acid Tannic acid (Gallotannic acid), a polyphenolic compound, is a CXCL12/CXCR4 inhibitor with antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity.
S5113 Propyl gallate Propyl gallate (Gallic acid propyl esterZ, n-Propyl gallate) is an antioxidant used in foods especially animal fats and vegetable oils, also in a wide variety of cosmetics and beauty care products.
S4799 Indole-3-acetic acid Indole-3-acetic acid (indolylacetic acid, 1H-Indole-3-acetic acid, indoleacetic acid, heteroauxin, IAA) is the most common plant hormone of the auxin class and it regulates various aspects of plant growth and development.
S5167 Benzyl cinnamate Benzyl cinnamate (Cinnamein, Benzylcinnamoate, Benzyl 3-phenylpropenoate, Cinnamic acid benzyl ester), a flavouring agent isolated from various plant species, is used in heavy oriental perfumes and as a fixative.
S5168 Anthraquinone Anthraquinones (Anthradio